مقالات پذیرفته شده



  • The Representation of Gender in Robert. J. Merritt’s The Cake Man

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : هیمن حیدری
    سایر نویسندگان : Himan Heidari
  • چکیده مقاله:
    As it is often reiterated by the contemporary theorists like Judith Butler, gender is an act instituted and constructed through the ongoing discourses within a culture. As such, the representation of gender within Aboriginal Australian context is something specific to themselves and at the same time unfamiliar and uncommon to non-Indigenous societies. Employing Butler’s notion of performativity, this study aims to justify and represent the Indigenous gender roles in Robert. J. Merritt’s The Cake Man. I argue that the characters’ performances in the play, as a social and cultural act, break up the dominant notions of ideal masculinity and femininity. On the one hand, the emasculation of the male characters, their idleness, violence as well as their absorption in alcohol (Sweet Williams), and on the other hand, the independency, dynamism and strength of the female characters (Ruby) shatter the conventional view of masculinity and femininity, establish Indigenous masculinity and femininity and give rise to what is called the crisis of masculinity.
  • The Effect of Teaching Modern English Drama on the ELL Students’ Fluency and Accuracy of Speaking, a Task Based Approach

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : کیان پیشکار
    سایر نویسندگان : Kian Pishkar*(corresponding author) Department of English Language and Literature PhD candidate of ELT, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, I.R. Iran Kian.pishkar@gmail.com Phone No. 09132489370 Ahmad Moinzadeh Associate Professor of ELT, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, I.R. Iran moin@fgn.ui.ac.ir Azizallah Dabaghi Associate Professor of ELT, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, I.R. Iran azizollahd@hotmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Speaking a language involves more than simply knowing the linguistic components of the message, and developing language skills requires more than grammatical comprehension and vocabulary memorization (Chastain, 1988). In teaching-learning processes, drama method may have some positive effects on ELL students' speaking fluency and accuracy. This study attempts to probe one of the main concerns of language learners, that is, how to improve their speaking components, e.g. oral fluency and accuracy. To attain this aim, the researchers investigated the effect of two selected texts from modern English dramas on students' speaking fluency and accuracy. They distinguished fluent from non-fluent and accurate from no accurate learners. Therefore, the current study was designed as a true experimental research and the data were gathered from 60 EFL students of English language and literature at Hormozgan University in Iran. The data were the recorded speaking transcripts which were analyzed to show the probable progresses after four-time (10 weeks) treatment. The factors to be considered in present study were the numbers of filled and unfilled pauses in each narration, the total number of words per minute, mean length of utterance, and number of stressed words. The results were compared and their temporal and linguistic measures were correlated with their fluency scores. They revealed that the speech rate, the mean length of utterance, phonation time ratio and the number of stressed words produced per minute were the best predictors of fluency scores, and thus, students' speaking fluency increased, whereas the students' speaking accuracy decreased in some areas of speaking abilities and oral communications.
  • Evaluating the MA TEFL Program in Iran from the Perspective of the Wellbeing Theory

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Zainab Abolfazli
    سایر نویسندگان : Zainab Abolfazli Khonbi and Dr. Karim Sadeghi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Focusing on the place of students’ wellbeing in the Iranian higher education system, in this research, 101 MA TEFL professors and students from 28 state universities in Iran were recruited to evaluate the quality of and offer a recommended status for this concept in this program. To this end, 24 character strengths that comprised six virtues (Peterson & Seligman, 2004) underlying wellbeing, were put into a questionnaire and the participants indicated the extent to which they were already paid attention to in this program and the extent to which they were important and therefore, should be considered, both on a 4-point Likert scale format. The participants also offered their recommended strategies for a wellbeing-based MA TEFL program. T-tests revealed male students had significantly more positive attitudes than their female counterparts towards the current status of wisdom and knowledge, courage, humanity, temperance in the program and female professors more than male professors believed courage, humanity, and temperance are currently attended to in the program. Students believed more than professors that transcendence and wellbeing are considered in the program while professors mentioned transcendence should be paid more attention to in the recommended program. Professors and students believed that the six virtues are more important than what is currently observed. Except in one case, in the other differences, the amount of eta squared showed moderate to large effect. Further interpretations and implications of results are discussed in the paper.
  • Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction between Experienced and Inexperienced EFL Teachers

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Shima Yousefzadeh
    سایر نویسندگان : Shima Yousefzadeh & Dr. Mehdi Sarkosh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Recently, organizational commitment and job satisfaction have become two important and popular issues receiving a lot of attention in administrative, organizational, and school settings. The present study investigates the relationship between EFL teachers' organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and evaluates whether teachers' experience moderates this relationship. For the aim of the present study, 100 male and female EFL teachers teaching at different Language institutes of Urmia, Iran were randomly selected. The participants were asked to fill out the two questionnaires of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Organizational commitment scale was designed by Meyer, Allen, and Smith (1993) and included three subscales (Affective commitment, Continiuance commitment, and Normative commitment) each including 6 items adding up to 18 items. Job Satisfaction Survey was developed by Spector (1985) containing 36 items with nine facets (Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Contingent Rewards, Operating Procedures, Coworkers, Nature of Work, and Communication). Participation was completely voluntary and teachers were assured that their responses would remain confidential. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed by SPSS. To explore the correlation between teachers' organizational commitment and their job satisfaction, the non-parametric Spearman correlation and Sequential Regression were run. The final results obtained from the present study revealed a positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction among EFL teachers. Also, the results showed that besides the general correlation between organizational commitment and job satisfaction of EFL teachers, sub 1 and sub 3, namely, affective commitment and normative commitment were correlated with job satisfaction. However, the findings divulged that experience was not a moderator of this relationship.
  • Assessing Iranian EFL Teachers’ Assessment Literacy and Their Classroom Practice

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : ژیلا بالغ
    سایر نویسندگان : Hossein Farhady Ali Azarnia Zhila Balegh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Assessment literacy of teachers has been a major concern in all educational disciplines in general and in EFL community, in particular. Despite the ample research on assessment literacy, little information is available on the relationship between the degree of assessment literacy of teachers and their performance in real classroom settings. The previous literature on this issue has mainly focused on finding out the extent to which a certain group of teachers is assessment literate. The aims of the article are to examine the level of assessment literacy among Iranian EFL teachers, to lay hands on the most momentous subparts in language testing which have determining shares in better test designs by testers, to determine the hypothetically feasible role of a lengthy experience in the field of English language testing as an alternative for assessment literacy, and to find out the relationship between the teachers’ assessment literacy and their own practice. The findings of the study indicated that the Iranian EFL teachers are at a medium level of assessment literacy, the knowledge of the general issues in testing (i.e., reliability, validity, and practicality) as long as the knowledge of the test construction (i.e., what and how standard items should be like) had a big share in comparison with other subsets of the assessment literacy on the teachers’ performance on test constructions; the teaching experience cannot individually make good testers; and there is a clear relationship between assessment literacy and the teachers’ performance.
  • Effect of Collaborative Prewriting Discussions on L2 Writing: Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : محمد نقوی
    سایر نویسندگان : محمد نقوی سید غلامرضا حسینی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study essays to investigate the impact of collaborative pre-writing discussions on three aspects of writing skill namely, complexity, accuracy and fluency. To reach this goal, 60 intermediate male EFL learners ranging from 22 to 28 years of age at Shahid Beheshti Language Center in Tehran, Iran participated in the study. For the purpose of homogeneity, the standardized English Proficiency Test (Preliminary English Test) was administered to 88 students and divided them into two intact experimental and control group. The experimental group, which was divided into six groups of five members, was exposed to and performed on 40 minutes essay writing tasks held two sessions per week lasting ninety-minutes for ten weeks with collaborative pre-writing discussions. Moreover, the students in experimental group were required to complete a questionnaire at the end of the study to find about their feelings regardingprewriting discussions prior to writing in L2. The control group received the same materials and teacher as experimental group, except for, there was no collaborative pre-writing discussions to write the essays. After the raters were trained and familiarized with the rating process, the essays by both groups were collected and scored holistically based on the assessment measure provided to the two raters (Appendix 1). In order to provide plausible answers to the research questions posed above, a series of one way ANOVA was employed to evaluate the participants' overall performance in the two conditions.
  • Investigating the Relationship Between Teacher Care and Student

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Kiyana Zhaleh
    سایر نویسندگان : Kiyana Zhaleh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Emphasizing the crucial role of teachers in their students’ academic performance and psychological development, the present study aimed to explore a relationship between EFL teachers’ care for their students and their learners’ level of creativity. To this aim, 65 students studying English as a foreign language at different private language institutes in Mashhad, Iran participated in the study. Teacher Care Scale (TC-S) and Abedi Creativity Test Questionnaire (ATC) were filled out by the participants in order to gather the required data. Subsequently, Pearson Correlation analysis was used in order to analyze the data. The results of the analysis demonstrated that there was a positive significant relationship between teacher care and learner creativity. Concerning the relationship between creativity and the subscales of teacher care, there was positive significant relationships between learner creativity and teacher stroke and also teacher feedback. However, there was a negative significant relationship between student creativity and teacher biased relationship with others. At the end, conclusions were made regarding the results and possible implications were put forward.
  • EFL Learners' beliefs about Telegram as a Social Network channel in Using Different Components of English Language in Urmia

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : اسماعیل بنی آدم
    سایر نویسندگان : Ismail Baniadam Javid Fereidoni
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Telegram is one of the most famous online social networks among EFL learners in Iran and it is an important tool in online communication and can create new space for English learners. Accordingly, the present study aims to investigate EFL learners’ beliefs about Telegram as a social networks in using different components of English language in Urmia, Iran. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and conducted to assess learners’ beliefs about Telegram as a typical social networks in using different components of English language. The participants in this study were 600 (300 male and 300 female) EFL learners, ranging from18-30 years old. The results indicated that Telegram learning can bring technological and pedagogical advantages for EFL learners and major percent of learners prefer to use Telegram for reading and writing components. .According to learners’ statements, it has also a significantly positive effect on the development of vocabulary learning in EFL context as a technology-assisted tool. The findings of present study are considered to be useful in applied linguistics and teaching methodology.
  • Authority and invisibility in ELT research articles: functional analysis

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Seyed Foad Ebrahimi
    سایر نویسندگان : Seyed Foad Ebrahimi English Department, Shadegan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shadegan, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study intends to investigate the realizations and discourse functions of the notions of identity and invisibility in ELT research articles. The notion of identity refers to the realizations of first person pronouns and the notion of invisibility refers to the realizations of empty subjects (it and there) in the subject position. This study was carried out on a corpus of 50 research articles extracted from ELT Journal published by Oxford University. All research articles of corpus have the structure of introduction, method, results, and discussion. The corpus was analyzed for the realizations and discourse functions of the notions of identity and invisibility. The results showed that the linguistic features that realize identity and invisibility perform different discourse functions. The results of this study could act as a guide to help novice writers to use first person pronoun and empty subjects in their research articles.
  • The use of nominal stance in sections of ELT research articles

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Seyed Foad Ebrahimi
    سایر نویسندگان : Seyed Foad Ebrahimi & Abdollah Mohsenzadeh English Department, Shadegan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shadegan, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study intends to investigate the use of nominal stance in sections of research articles from discipline of English Language Teaching. This study was run on a corpus of 50 ELT research articles extracted from ELT Journal published by Oxford University. The research articles have the rhetorical structure of IMRD (introduction, method, results and discussion). The research articles were published in the last seven years. To analyze the corpus for the nominal stance, Hyland (2015) taxonomy was followed. The results indicated that there are differences between rhetorical sections of ELT research articles concerning the use of nominal stance. Results of this study could help novice writers specially novice non-native writers to use the nominal stance in their research articles.
  • The effect of teaching vocabulary in various degrees of contexts (zero, reduced and full context) on vocabulary learning and retention of Iranian female intermediate EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : parisa sattari
    سایر نویسندگان : ELHAM ZARFSAZ - PARISA SATTARI
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Vocabulary is considered as one of the most important components in language teaching. According to Russell (1961), vocabulary comprehension can lead to the improvement in listening, speaking, reading and writing; therefore, the present study tried to investigate the effect of teaching vocabulary in various degrees of contexts (zero, reduced and full context) on vocabulary learning and retention of Iranian female intermediate EFL learners. For this purpose, 67 female students within the age range of 16-21 from a language Institute (JDLI) in Iran participated in the study. Having homogenized them through Nelson proficiency test, they were divided into three groups of zero context (N= 19), reduced context (N= 20) and full context (N= 23). To teach the vocabulary, the zero context group received the definition of the vocabulary without any context. In the reduced context group, vocabulary was embedded in the disconnected sentences. And in the full context group, vocabulary was embedded in the full contexts such as a paragraph or an article. After administering the Pre-Test, Post-Test and Delayed Post-Test, the data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc comparison to find the possible significant group differences in the tests. Based on the findings, teaching vocabulary in various degrees of contexts (zero, reduced and full context) had a significant effect on vocabulary learning and retention of Iranian female intermediate EFL learners; The results revealed that full context and reduced context groups performed significantly better than zero context group in both post and delayed post tests indicating that teaching vocabulary in full context (paragraph level) and reduced context (sentential level) had positive effect on learning and retention of vocabulary by Iranian female intermediate EFL
  • Investigating the Relationship between Test Anxiety, Attitude toward English Language Learning, Personality Traits and Test Performance of Iranian EFL Students

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Mojtaba Gheitasi
    سایر نویسندگان : Reza Khany, Mojtaba Gheitasi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study examined the network of associations among test anxiety, attitude toward learning English, and personality traits. A test anxiety scale, a language learning attitudes questionnaire and Big Five personality traits inventory were used as research instruments. The results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis confirmed the hypothesized model of relationships among the study variables. The final model associations among variables also revealed significant correlations among various sub-scales.
  • The Effect of Relative clauses` Instruction on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Junior High School Female Students

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Sakineh Rajaeifar
    سایر نویسندگان : Seyyed Hossein Kashef1 Sakineh Rajaeifar1 1English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study explored the contribution of learners’ syntactic knowledge, namely relative clauses in reading comprehension of Iranian EFL junior high school female students. The design of this study was based on a quasi-experimental method. To carry out the research, a pretest was administered to 47 female students from Shahed School in Urmia. Having homogenized by pretest, the researcher randomly assigned them into either experimental or control group. Then, the experimental group received treatment regarding relative clauses. However, the control group only approached the traditional teaching method. Following ten sessions for both groups, they all participated in the posttest of reading comprehension as to investigate the differences on the specific treatment program. The statistical analysis was performed on the collected data through t-test and the results suggested that relative clauses instruction has a significant effect on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL junior high school female students. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. The findings could offer some implications for learners, teachers, and materials developers.
  • Investigating the Effects of Writing Exercise on Vocabulary Learning Performance of English Language via reading in High School Students

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : لیلا رستمی
    سایر نویسندگان : Leila Rostami
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The current research aims to investigate the effects of writing exercise on vocabulary learning performance in English language via learning in teenage high school students. Statistical population of this study was entire high school students in Sufian city, East Azerbaijan Province. Among statistical population 180 students were selected through random stratified sampling method from which 90 students were male and 90 were female. Participants were required to write three paragraph about a desired subject within classroom including 20 new English words with given meaning Farsi. But, control group only received words and their meaning in Farsi without any writing exercise. The written texts were corrected by teachers and returned to students. Students in the next week class were tested using a researcher-made test including vocabulary questions about the 20 new words. Results showed that writing exercise affected vocabulary learning performance of students. Also, results indicated that there was no difference between male and female students.
  • A Corpus-driven Food Science and Technology Academic Word List

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : قدسیه توکلی معین
    سایر نویسندگان : قدسیه توکلی معین رجب اسفندیاری
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The purpose of this study was to create a list of the most frequently occurring academic words in Food Science and Technology (FST). To this end, a 4,652,444- word corpus called Food Science and Technology Research Articles (FSTRA) was developed. Frequency and range-based criteria were used to develop Food Science and Technology Academic Word list (FSTAWL). Word families had to occur in more than 19 journals, and they had to occur at least 134 times in the whole established corpus. The computer program RANGE was used to analyze the data. The results showed that 1,090 academic word families met the criteria of the study and constituted FSTAWL. The results also revealed that the word families accounted for 13% of the coverage in the FSTRA. FSTAWL provides FST non-native English learners who need to read a large number of RAs and to publish FST RAs in the English journals, with a useful list of the most frequently used academic words, helping them to strengthen their academic reading and writing proficiency. The findings echo calls for creating more discipline-specific word lists to cater for the needs of specialized learner populations, providing implications for materials producers as well as explicit teaching of academic words.
  • The significant role of narration of bedtime stories on children

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : آزیتا خزاعی
    سایر نویسندگان : دکتر آزیتا خزاعی نازلی خزاعی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study offers a consideration of the ways in which narrative matters in children's literature. Baby talk is an important part of the emotional bonding process between the narrator and the child listening to bedtime story. Children comprehension in bedtime stories is based on the type of narration by the narrator. In other words using basic “baby talk” helps children pick up words faster than usual. The present study was designed to investigate the role of narration on children comprehension of bedtime stories. The children were exposed to different narrations of a specific bedtime story. The results of these experiments show that children's attention and understanding of the story varies significantly due to the type of narration and the shift of narrator's voice. They have little difficulty in understanding narrator's voice and understanding the story. However, using no shift and raise of voice and a specific baby talk while narrating a bedtime story to children results in no considerable reaction and response by children.
  • Language Attrition and Change among Kurdish Speakers

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : نظام جهانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Nezam Jahani (MA) Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Touran Ahour (PhD) Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Language Attrition and Change among Kurdish Speakers Living in Qotour and Khoy Nezam Jahani (MA) Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Touran Ahour (PhD) Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Abstract This study aimed to compare the language attrition and change among Kurdish speakers who live in Qotour and Khoy, two cities of western Azerbaijan province in Iran. In this qualitative study the effect of Azari as a second language on Kurdish as a first language was explored. The participants of the study were 46 speakers of Kurmanji dialect in two independent groups living in Qotour and Khoy. The data were collected through a questionnaire, interview recordings of translation tasks, and personal observations of the participants’ language use. In this regard, the lexical, syntactical, and phonological features of Kurdish in the local areas were examined. The findings revealed that the Kurds of Qotour who placed in the second setting (Khoy) were witnessing a clear-cut case of language attrition toward the majority society. In addition, it was found that the most attrition has happened in the lexical level of language, while, syntactical level had the least change and attrition. The attrition and change in different levels of the language will be discussed and presented through the real samples of the participants’ language. The results of the study can be useful for the linguists who are interested in the area of language attrition and for the teachers in the area of contrastive analysis. Keywords: language attrition, language change, Kurdish speakers, Azeri, Khoy, Kurmanji, Qotour
  • The Impact of Using ClassDojo on Students' Motivation and Class Participation in Iranian EFL Classrooms

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : kamran Janfeshan
    سایر نویسندگان : Bahman Moradi M.A student in TEFL, English language department, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran. e-mail: Mi.moradi@yahoo.com Kamran Janfeshan Assistant professor English language department, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran. email: Dr.kjnfeshan@iauksh.ac.ir , dr.kjanfeshan@gmail.com 00989188563066
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract The use of technology in the classroom is becoming extremely common particularly in foreign language classes. The purpose of this paper was to find the impact of using ClassDojo on students' motivation and class participation in Iranian EFL classrooms and to determine to what extent their classroom engagement and behavior would be affected by the use of ClassDojo in TEFL classes? This study was completed in a private English language institute and included 30 elementary students. Data sources included: an observational record of students’ on and off task behavior, monitoring students’ from the beginning of the course to the end of the course, the motivation questionnaire and ClassDojo totals for “Positive” and “Needs Work” points throughout the ten-week study. ClassDojo was presented to the students for eight weeks. They were introduced to their ClassDojo avatar and instructed how it earned points for both positive and negative behavior via the ClassDojo application. Data show positive growth in student motivation, behavior and engagement. Study feedback indicates the value of adding ClassDojo to an existing behavior program. The results showed that game-based applications used in the classroom can investigate the interest generated as well as stimulate learners and engages their attention.
  • Free Will, Responsibility and Anxiety in Franz Kafka’s Selected Short Stories Based on Kierkegaard’s Philosophy

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : احسان خوشدل
    سایر نویسندگان : Ehsan Khoshdel
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Existentialism is a philosophy of freedom, however some of the thinkers and philosophies do not believe in this free will. It is believed that humans are born biological beings but we must become existential individuals by accepting responsibility for our actions. This is an application of Existentialist idea to become what you are. Many people never acknowledge such responsibility but rather flee their existential individuality into the comfort of the faceless crowd. In this philosophy the human being is placed at the center and the ultimate value, the goal of our endeavors, should be the fostering of the freedom of the individual, by which he means the enhancement of his or her concrete possibilities of choice. That creative freedom should not be devoted to any higher value such as class or God. This echoes the image of what is called free spirits in his Human. The concept of choice refers to the responsible decision to opt for or against freedom itself. Freedom, from an existential perspective, cannot be separated from responsibility. With freedom comes responsibility. Yet, it is common for many people to seek freedom while trying to avoid responsibility. While, at times, it appears that people may be able to succeed at this, there remains a psychological consequence. This consequence is often not very noticeable, but may find expression through guilt, anxiety, depression, or even anger. Such freedom can be found among the characters of Kafka‟s short stories who have been free to choose but later they have to face the consequences in form of anxiety
  • A qualitative Investigation of Cross Linguistic Influences in Writing Persian and English Verb Aspects of Scientific Papers’ Abstracts

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : پریسا ترنج
    سایر نویسندگان : Parisa Toranj, Dr. Bahman Motaei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Due to the increased number of academic publications, research article abstracts have gained importance in the past few decades. Therefore, writing clear informative abstracts in English has become a crucial skill for scholars. One of the characteristics of good pieces of abstract writing is attending to certain grammatical features. Native speakers of English have very little difficulty regarding writing compared to nonnatives and they can be used as a good source for judging EFL learners’ articles’ abstracts. Researchers used qualitative content analysis case study method to find the similarities and differences in using verbs, usage/pattern in comparison to the English and Persian papers which were written by 48 MA and PhD postgraduate students in different fields of study compared to 52 English abstracts selected randomly as the native writers. Results showed that cross linguistic differences affect nonnative article writing; their writings were not native like they were just translation of Persian abstracts. They used verbs in English writing the same as Persian usage. They transferred their mother tongue to their paper writing skill. Verbs used by nonnative highly educated EFL learners were not similar to natives’. The increasing interest in verb aspects is motivated by a need to supply models of academic and scientific texts for the students, so that they can produce those texts appropriately.
  • Note-taking strategies to foster self-regulatory learning: the case of EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مینا طسوجی آذری
    سایر نویسندگان : Mina Tasouji Azari, PhD student (TEFL) Ziba Mahdivand, MA (TEFL) Mahsa Alinasab, PhD student (TEFL)
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Note-taking strategies to foster self-regulatory learning: the case of EFL advanced learners Abstract Taking notes while reading or listening activities appears to be a demanding process for a majority of foreign language learners. This process can be related to self-regulatory learning (SRL) that involves learners in a self-directed experience through which they can manage their own behaviors in order to accomplish the desired learning outcomes. The present study was an attempt to link note-taking strategies to self-regulatory learning in order to spot the possible relationships between the two processes. To this end, a quasi-experimental design was implemented to gauge EFL learners’ self-regulatory learning improvements using a pretest-posttest layout. Twenty five female learners have been randomly divided into +note-taking and – note-taking groups. An instructional package consisting of explicit guidelines of not-taking strategies was designed and implemented in the + note-taking group, while the – note-taking group received its default EFL instruction. Based on students' responses to the self-f-regulatory learning questionnaire at the end of the treatment, it was found that the + note-taking group outperformed their counterparts in – note-taking groups in terms of the improvements in SRL. Besides, within + note-taking group, significant changes were observed in regard to SLR when compared to pre-test conditions. The present study calls for more incorporation of cognitive learning strategies such as taking notes in foreign language instructional courses in order to enhance a self- managing learning journey on the part of the learners. Key words: EFL learners; self-regulatory learning; note-taking strategies
  • Note-taking strategies to foster self-regulatory learning: the case of EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مینا طسوجی آذری
    سایر نویسندگان : Mina Tasuji Azari, PhD student (TEFL) Ziba Mahdivand, MA (TEFL) Mahsa Alinasab, PhD student (TEFL)
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Note-taking strategies to foster self-regulatory learning: the case of EFL advanced learners Abstract Taking notes while reading or listening activities appears to be a demanding process for a majority of foreign language learners. This process can be related to self-regulatory learning (SRL) that involves learners in a self-directed experience through which they can manage their own behaviors in order to accomplish the desired learning outcomes. The present study was an attempt to link note-taking strategies to self-regulatory learning in order to spot the possible relationships between the two processes. To this end, a quasi-experimental design was implemented to gauge EFL learners’ self-regulatory learning improvements using a pretest-posttest layout. Twenty five female learners have been randomly divided into +note-taking and – note-taking groups. An instructional package consisting of explicit guidelines of not-taking strategies was designed and implemented in the + note-taking group, while the – note-taking group received its default EFL instruction. Based on students' responses to the self-f-regulatory learning questionnaire at the end of the treatment, it was found that the + note-taking group outperformed their counterparts in – note-taking groups in terms of the improvements in SRL. Besides, within + note-taking group, significant changes were observed in regard to SLR when compared to pre-test conditions. The present study calls for more incorporation of cognitive learning strategies such as taking notes in foreign language instructional courses in order to enhance a self- managing learning journey on the part of the learners. Key words: EFL learners; self-regulatory learning; note-taking strategies
  • 1. Is there any significant relationship between Iranian male EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence and their use of non-verbal communicative strategies?

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Shahrzad Asadi
    سایر نویسندگان : Shahrzad Asadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    ABSTRACT The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between Iranian male and female EFL teachers' emotional intelligence and their non-verbal communicative strategies. For this purpose, 120 EFL teachers (60 male and 60 female) with BA (bachelor of Art) and MA degrees (Master of art) within the age range of 28 to 35 were selected from Avatalk and Atlas English language Institutions in Urmia, Iran to take part in the current study. A demographic questionnaire was subsequently administered orally before the study in order to ensure the homogeneity of the participants from the point of factors such as, cultural background, language experience, mother tongue and teaching experience. After that, a domestic version of Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (1997) made by Samouei (2003) which was translated into Persian and consisted of 90 items categorized in five higher-order scales and 15 subscales was administered to the participants. The second questionnaire administered to the same participants was a teacher non-verbal communicative strategies questionnaire in a form of Likret scale which was adapted from Ferrel (2012) and limited to non-verbal communicative strategies. This questionnaire was composed of 45 statements for which the teachers were required to read and provide answers by labeling A, B, C, D, E ranging from always to never in the blank to the left of each statement. To determine the relationship between Emotional intelligence and non-verbal communicative strategy as well as the differences among strategies, correlation coefficient (Pearson's correlation coefficient) was used. To determine whether was any significant difference between the use of non-verbal communicative strategies by the male and female teachers with the same level of emotional intelligence a two way ANOVA test was run on the obtained data. The results revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between both male and female teachers’ emotional intelligences and their use of non-verbal communication strategies. It was also found that male and female teachers with low and medium emotional intelligences showed no significance differences in terms of using non-verbal communication strategies. That is, gender did not have any significant effect on the use of non-verbal communication strategies in these two levels of emotional intelligence.
  • David Mamet’s Oleanna and the Educational System as an Ideological State Apparatus in the Capitalist Society of America

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Rajabali Askarzadeh torghabeh
    سایر نویسندگان : Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh (Ph.D.) Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran E-Mail: asgar@um.ac.ir Shirin Sheykh Farshi (M.A. Student) Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Mashhad, Iran Email 1: sh.sheykhfarshi@mail.um.ac.ir Phone number 1: 09139056637
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Among many American playwrights who have illustrated the circumstances of capitalism in America, David Mamet is known as the most capable one in presenting a real picture of capitalist society of America in his plays. He depicts the social problems of America in 20th century elaborately due to his own life experiences in such capitalist society and the conditions of people in it. In his plays, Mamet displays that how middle class people are abused and that how they try to achieve their ambitious dreams anyway. He illustrates that the humanitarian feelings between people are gone and they are fragmented and alienated from each other. Mamet also shows that, in such a capitalist society, the class conflicts take place between opposed social classes in order to obtain power and authority. This article focuses on Mamet’s Oleanna in which some of these capitalist problems can be seen. This play is about student-teacher relationship in the context of educational system which can be interpreted as a superstructure or one of Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) of the capitalist society of America. This paper analyzes the play mainly based on Marxist theories of Louis Althusser and Karl Marx to display its socioeconomic problem through these approaches. The findings of the study show the influence of capitalism on the behavior and relationship of the characters and their dreams.
  • Instructors and Students' Attitudes about Use of First Language and Target Language in EFL Classroom

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : karim Jahangiri
    سایر نویسندگان : Karim Jahangiri, Department of English Language and Literature, Miyaneh branch, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh, Iran.
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study used both qualitative and quantitative data to investigate instructors and students' use first language (Persian) and target language (English) in EFL classes at language institutes in Iran. The goal was to identify Both instructors and students' attitudes about the use of first language and target language (TL) in different aspects of language learning and teaching process including teacher-student ,student-teacher and student-student interaction, grammar explanation, cultural differences, new vocabulary, instruction, etc . To this end, three language institutes were selected and data were collected through observation, questionnaire and interview. Data obtained from different sources were analyzed and compared. The results showed that both instructors and students have some misconceptions about use of target and native language. Also, lack of sufficient vocabulary knowledge was identified as the main reason for switching from target to first language during communication. Finally, suggestions were made for effective use of first and target language use in EFL classes.
  • THE EFFECT OF PLAYING ONLINE VIDEO-BASED GAMES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSLATION COMPETENCE AMONG INTERMEDIATE EFL LEARNERS

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : امیر کولجی
    سایر نویسندگان : Amir Koolaji, Farzaneh Haratyan
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In the process of translating, vocabulary plays an important role. In order to achieve translation competence in translating texts, students should have an adequate number of words and should know how to use them accurately. This study showed how playing online video-based games promoted vocabulary knowledge which eventually advanced translation competence of intermediate Iranian EFL students. For this purpose, the researcher utilized a three-dimensional framework, which is mainly based on; computer assisted translations (CAT), Digital game-based learning (DGBL), and Process of Acquisition of Translation Competence and Evaluation (PACTE) model for translation competence. In this quantitative study, the researcher used experimental (pretest, post-test) methods. The research participants included 80 EFL learners’ students were divided into two experimental and control groups. Experimental group learned vocabulary via playing online video-based games, while the control group was taught through some traditional method. To fulfill the objective of the study, independent samples t-test was applied to study any significant relationship between the variables. Results revealed the higher performance of experimental group in post-test of translation. The online video-based games and translation competence are closely inter-related. They can be effectively used as beneficial techniques in progressing the vocabulary acquisition of intermediate EFL learners which in end positively affects their translation competence. The findings of this study can be used for pedagogical purposes and implications dealing with computer assisted translation.
  • A Cultural Comparative Analysis of Humor Translating in Ramona Quimby Series

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : امیر کولجی
    سایر نویسندگان : Amir Koolaji, Farzeneh Haratyan
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Humor plays an important role in the context of cultural communication. One of the major roles to transfer humor between cultures is fiction.This study sought to investigate the way humor in Ramona Quimby series written by Beverly Cleary are translated by Parvin Alipour into Persian. This study showed what strategies have been used in translation of humor as a salient component of children’s literature. Further, to what extent Persian translation of Ramona Quimby series reflected equivalent humor through Attardo-Newmark theory. For determination of the types of strategies used in the translation of humor in children’s literature a new model, a combination of newmark’s and Attardo’s (2002) Verbal Humor and was introduced to find out the appropriate translation of humor. Frequent strategies used by the translator. were identified, tabulated, and analyzed.The findings of the study can benefit translators, translator trainers and researchers in the field of humor translation in children’s literature.
  • 'A Psychoanalytic Reading of Sylvia Plath's Lady Lazarus: The Issue of 'Cut in the Body

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : صلاح الدین محمدی
    سایر نویسندگان : Salahaddin Mohammedi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Being under the pressure of a strict patriarchal society, the speaker at Sylvia Plath’s poem tries to define her core nature by new standards on the basis of which she can carry out her process of integration and making a new identity. Sylvia Plath has always been known for her ground-breaking, non-conventional, and argumentative poetry. This paper tries to find a new way to describe and enlighten the core issue of the poem Lady Lazarus by alluding to one of the controversial discussions of the famous psychoanalyst, Julia Kristeva, namely ‘cut in the body’. In this act, women try to disintegrate themselves so they can set themselves free from the restraining social bonds made by the male figure. In the course of this paper, some ideas by such figures as Slavoj Zizek will be brought up to further elaborate on this issue of making a new identity. On the whole, it seems that women usually tend to make some cuts in their body to defy the society in which they live; this way, they can act as some outsiders and by this means they can truly define who they really are. This paper, then, will try to further understanding of this . issue of ‘cut in the body’ in Plath’s poem and analyze the intricate interconnections resulting from this issue on one’s identity
  • An Exploration of the Relationship Between Motivation, Attitude towards Language Learning and Learner Autonomy

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Hamid Najaf Pour Sani
    سایر نویسندگان : Hamid Najaf Pour Sani Department of English and Foreign Languages, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    ABSTRACT Research into learner autonomy has recently received a surge of interest in the realm of language teaching and learning due to the increased attention to learner centered curricula. Although myriad of studies, to date, have been carried out on varied aspects of learner autonomy, the central role some affective variables might play seems to have gone partially unnoticed. Thus, in an attempt to address this rather unaddressed area of scrutiny, the present correlational study was designed to probe into the relationship between motivation and attitude toward language learning and learner autonomy of Persian EFL learners across gender. To this end, 72 university learners majoring in TEFL at MA level constituted the participants of the present study. As for the data collection, three sets of questionnaires including two modified version of Gardner’s Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) questionnaires along with an autonomy questionnaire were administered to the participants. The obtained data were mainly analyzed through running Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results of the study indicated that the relationship between motivation and learner autonomy as well as attitude and learner autonomy is significantly positive among female learners, however, the relationship is not significant for male learners. Moreover, the findings revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between motivation and attitude among both female and male learners. Furthermore, the relationship between all the variables is significantly positive considering the whole population. The study has offered some pedagogical suggestions to be employed in language teaching environment.
  • A Diaspora Reading of Thanhha Lai’s Inside Out and Back Again

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : پریسا طالبی
    سایر نویسندگان : پریسا طالبی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Vietnamese Diasporic literature is one of the most talked about and discussed topics in literature today. Displaced communities and their settlements have an important role in it. This paper is an attempt to study the portrayal of diaspora in literature, mainly in the key-text of leading writer such as Thanhha Lai’s Inside Out and Back Again.
  • task complexity and EFL learner's performance influenced by written mode

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : زهرا طالبی
    سایر نویسندگان : سید جعفر رفیعی و زهرا طالبی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Task complexity and EFL learners’ performance influenced by written mode. Over the past decade, task-based language teaching and learning and their relationship to L2 acquisition has become a burgeoning area of research within task-based language teaching, learning, and assessment in SLA (e.g., Ellis, 2003; Long, 2000; Skehan, 1998a).Research on SLA concentrated on tasks and investigating task difficulty, task complexity, task design, performance condition, and particularly regarding the effects tasks have on language learning and language performance in SLA research and language pedagogy. (see Bygate, 1999; Ellis, 2003, 2005; Robinson, 2003, 2005; Schmidt, 1993; Skehan & Foster, 1996, 1999, 2001; Tavakoli & Foster, 2008; Rahimpour, 1999, 2008, 2010; Salimi & Dadashpour, 2011). Implicit in these investigations is the understanding that task design variables have an effect on learner production. this Study explored the effects of task complexity on the fluency, accuracy, grammatical and lexical complexity of EFL students’ writing task across proficiency level. Whereas Skehan (1998) proposes that increasing task complexity with respect to resourcedirecting factors results in reduced fluency, complexity, and accuracy of oral Language production, Robinson (2001a, 2001b, 2003, 2005) argues that increasing task complexity with respect to these factors enhances complexity and accuracy but reduces fluency. This study attempts to determine whether accuracy and complexity of language production can be improved simultaneously through the use of task design. The dependent variables in this study are lexical, grammatical complexity, accuracy and fluency. The independent variables are task complexity (resource-directing, number of elements and resource-dispersing, planning time) and proficiency level, as the study investigates the effect of task complexity on the written performance of L2 learners of different levels of linguistic proficiency. whereas task complexity was defined according to Robinson's Triadic Componential Framework, also known as the Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2001a, b, 2003, 2005, 2007. This study carries some implications for second language acquisition (SLA) researchers, language teachers, and syllabus designers. Findings may also add to the present literature in SLA theory, language testing, syllabus design, and material development. Therefore, providing insights on designing and implementation of tasks in L2 classroom settings.Key words: Task complexity, resource-directing, resource-dispersing, EFL learner, written performance
  • Number of options in multiple choice tests: An examination of test-taker preferences

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : غزال اخوان معصومی
    سایر نویسندگان : Ghazal Akhavan Masoumi, Karim Sadeghi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Throughout the history of language testing, testers and teachers have used different methods for measuring the performance of test takers in language tests including Multiple-Choice (MC), and completion tests. However, MC tests are utilized mostly in educational assessment because of their objectivity, ease of scoring, and reliability. This study aimed to compare Item Facility (IF) and Item Discrimination (ID) of MC vocabulary test items and to understand whether these indices are affected by the number of options. To this end, four 20 item stem equivalent vocabulary tests (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-option MC) were administered to 194 (106 male and 88 female) pre-intermediate students. Besides, an attitude questionnaire was utilized to examine the attitudes of test takers towards MC test format. Results of one-way ANOVA showed that altering number of options in MC tests does not affect ID; however, there were significant differences between IF of 3-, 5-, and 6-option and 4-, 5-, and 6-option MC test but not between 3- and 4-option MC test, suggesting that 6-option test is the most difficult test. Also, the results of questionnaire revealed test takers’ preference towards the use of 3-option MC. Findings demonstrated that increasing the number of options makes a test more difficult and that choosing the right number of option for MC tests is controversial. Testers are recommended to consider various factors while choosing the right number of options.
  • ESP in Iran: Challenges and Recommendations

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سیدحسین کاشف
    سایر نویسندگان : Kashef
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The ongoing need for English proficiency among non-English major university students has highlighted the significance of EAP courses day by day. However, much of the research and literature in EAP has concentrated on syllabus and teaching content with little or no attention to teaching methodology. This paper aims at shedding light on the existing challenges in EAP instruction and EAP courses in Iranian higher education. The paper concludes by giving some practical implications for EAP practitioners emphasizing the role of teaching methodology in EAP courses.
  • The Impacts of Harmer’s Engagement, Study, Activate (ESA) Elements on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners: A Task—based Approach

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Hadi Shokri
    سایر نویسندگان : Hooshang Khoshsima Hadi Shokri
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Words are the building blocks and indicative of the language input in a language. By learning the lexical items, we start to develop knowledge of the target language. On that account, researchers have always attempted to present the best course of action to increase learner’s vocabulary retention. The present contribution examines Harmer’s Engagement, study, activate (ESA) elements in promoting EFL learners vocabulary retention as a newly developed technique. For this reason, two intact groups of each containing 15 Iranian EFL learners from Chabahar Maritime University were enrolled. Prior to the study, at the beginning of the 12-week instructional period, a vocabulary pre-test was administered to test the comparability of the groups. Regarding the control group, vocabularies were presented with the traditional methods of repetition and memorization without giving any explicit explanation about the meaning structure of the lexical items. However, considering the experimental group the vocabularies were presented in tasks by implementing ESA elements of Engagement, study and activate. The detailed lesson plan written and prepared with regard to the principles of ESA elements were utilized to get the ideal results. At the end of the treatment period (2 weeks after the last instructional session), a vocabulary post-test was given to the participants to investigate their performance in vocabulary retention. The results of the statistical analyses, i.e. independent sample t-test showed that the experimental group has significantly outperformed the control group; the learners also showed a positive overall tendency towards the teaching method based on ESA elements. The pedagogical implications of the study are hoped to make a significant contribution to EFL teachers, Researchers, policy makers and curriculum designers.
  • The Philosophy of Schopenhauer in the plays of Samuel Beckett and Sara Kane

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Mehdi Deilami
    سایر نویسندگان : Mehdi Deilami
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract The Philosophy of Schopenhauer in the Plays of Samuel Beckett and Sara Kane Arthur Schopenhauer was a great philosopher whose influence on western philosophy and on later generation of philosophers is undeniable. In his magnum opus, The World as Will and its Representation, he explicates the ultimate moving force of the world as a blind force which controls the whole world of phenomena. He describes this controlling force as Will. This blind energy is based on lack, without which there is no need for any movement in the world. The satisfaction of this lack eventuates boredom, and the path toward satiating this lack causes crave and suffering in Schopenhauerian philosophy. This article first depicts the pendulum of boredom and suffering in Beckett and Kane’s dramas as manifestations of Schopenhauer’s world and then presents the way out of this doomed circle of the world of phenomena offered by these dramatists through redeeming power of love. Undoubtedly this redeeming love has its own defining features. Being sexless and directed toward an object that is unworldly, this love has the qualifications prescribed by Schopenhauer in order to deny the Will; therefore, reaching freedom and an unshackled human. Keywords: Schopenhauer, Samuel Beckett, Sara Kane, Redeeming Love, Will, Freedom
  • The Iranian EFL Major and EAP Students' Awareness of Metacognitive Reading Strategies

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : شیما بهشتی
    سایر نویسندگان : Hassan Soodmand Afshar and Shima Beheshti
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness is said to play an important role in second language reading comprehension. Accordingly, the problem of poor reading comprehension seems to be resolved by learning metacognitive reading strategy skills. The present study thus aimed at investigating the EFL and EAP readers' overall pattern of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies (i.e. global, problem solving, and support strategies) as well as the relationship between the participants’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategy and their reading performance. To this end, 75 students from various fields of engineering and 75 students from English Language majors were selected. After completing a reading comprehension test, their awareness of metacognitive reading strategies was assessed by a questionnaire of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies developed by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002). The results of four independent samples t-test showed no significant differences between EFL and EAP students in terms of their metacognitive awareness of overall reading strategies and problem solving strategies. However, the participants revealed significant differences in their metacognitive awareness of global and support reading strategies with EFL learners being significantly more aware of global reading strategies and EAP students having significantly higher awareness of support reading strategies. Additionally, the analysis of the descriptive statistics revealed that both EFL and EAP readers were medium‐strategy users.Moreover, Pearson correlation coefficient revealed statistically significant correlation between readers’ perceived use of strategies and their reading scores.
  • The Effects of Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on Reading Comprehension Skill of Iranian Intermediate EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : کریم قربانی جیران
    سایر نویسندگان : Karim Gorbani Jeiran, MA graduate, Islamic Azad University - Tabriz Branch Javad Gholami, Ph.D Urmia University
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Reading ability is one of the critical components of literacy. The ability to read efficiently is particularly important in an EFL/ESL educational context. Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) is an alternative strategy used to help students enhance their comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, and word recognition skills. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of DR-TA on reading comprehension skill of Iranian intermediate EFL learners, with gender as a moderator variable. The sample for this study comprises four randomly chosen intact classes out of eight classes at Safir Language Institute in Urmia, Iran. Two classes were randomly assigned to the control group (traditional reading strategy) and the other two classes to the experimental group. The reading passages in the experimental groups were taught based on DR-TA reading strategy. Both experimental and control groups consisted of two sub-groups, a male and a female, each of which had 18 students, adding up N=72 students. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine if there were significant inter-group and intra-group differences in the participants' reading comprehension skill. The findings revealed that DR-TA had significant impact on reading comprehension of the learners, and that gender did not have any significant impact on the learners' reading comprehension in any of the groups. The study concludes that Directed Reading-Thinking Activity is an effective alternative to teaching reading and calls for its.
  • Educational guidelines of Quran and their application in education

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : جواد بلالی
    سایر نویسندگان : Jacob Naroei وJavad Belali, Afsaneh Tohidi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Humans need education for survival, keeping balance in life, controlling the environment, and obviating their needs. Trainer and trainee both have roles in education. God is the first mentor and Adam was the first disciple. For human teaching, the Holy Quran presents special customs of having commitment, patience, purpose, not having hurry, presenting materials to the extent the trainee can learn and their teaching, pointing out difficulties of teaching, and giving the right to choose to the learners. Considering teaching customs in the Holy Quran, the purpose of the present study is to study the educational guidelines in Quran and in education and training in a parallel manner and an analytic-descriptive method of research is used in this study. These guidelines consist of allegory, simile, repetition, metaphor, tale, code and hint, controversial method, teaching and thinking language. The results show that the language of Quran has the most likeness to the language of education and training. The results also show that the verses of Quran which have educational aspect have the capacity of being used for teaching students. The limitations of this study were the lack of scientific resources with regard to the teachers’ work in different scientific fields. It is suggested that in different educational fields the educational guidelines of Quran and their effectiveness and application be considered and studied more.
  • Why is translation ignored in language learning

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : عباس راهنمایی
    سایر نویسندگان : Abbas Rahnamaei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present research considers one the issues of language learning which is the role of translation in language learning. In this research, the researcher has searched different reliable sources to see why translation is ignored in the long process of language learning and can translation play a pivotal role in the mentioned phenomenon or it simply should be ignored when it comes to this issue. In this research the Larsen-Freeman and Yule’s strategies have been used relating to language learning strategies introduced by them and have been extracted and then the data was computed to conclude the results. The final result shows that translation should not be ignored thoroughly and completely since it is sometimes beneficial in language learning.
  • ?Are the knowledgeable and learned teachers more important than the textbooks in language learning

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : عباس راهنمایی
    سایر نویسندگان : Abbas Rahnamaei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Although there are a lot of crucial factors and key issues which are heavily involved in language learning, this paper aims to home in on the two utmost important factors and key issues in learning a new language academically. The two mentioned major factors are the pivotal role of textbooks versus the key role of learned teachers in language learning perfectly and practically at a language institute. The researcher has been teaching English in his hometown for over eleven years at more than ten language institutes from the poorest to the best. He argues that when it comes to learning a second language at a language institute, it is the role of the learned teachers which should be placed above the role of textbooks. The researcher has used some library researches and his own experience as a teacher to conclude the result.
  • Writing and Grammatical Accuracy: The Role of Direct Written Feedback

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Maryam Ansaroudi
    سایر نویسندگان : Taher Alavi, Maryam Ansaroudi, Masumeh Gholizadeh, Afsaneh Gharakhani
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This investigation was an attempt to discover the effect of providing corrective written feedback on L2 writing. To this purpose, 12 lower intermediate homogeneous students were selected using availability sampling and were divided into the experimental and control groups. The experimental group was provided with direct written feedbacks on each writing but the control group received no feedback on their writing tasks over 4 weeks. Employing t-test to analyze the data, it was found that the experimental group’s grammatical accuracy improved during the investigation and they did much better than the control group on the tests. So, it is understood that providing direct written feedbacks will contribute to improvements in writing accuracy.
  • The Emergence of Fluency, Grammatical Accuracy, Grammatical Complexity, and Lexical Complexity in Oral and Written Productions of Three Iranian Female English Teachers

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Maryam Ansaroudi
    سایر نویسندگان : Taher Alavi, Maryam Ansaroudi, Masumeh Gholizadeh, Afsaneh Gharakhani
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study was an attempt to explore fluency, grammatical accuracy, grammatical complexity, and lexical complexity in the productive skills of three female English teachers in west Azerbaijan, Iran. To find out the students four measures in the oral and written productions, we asked the individual participants to write a narrative out of the pictorial sequence of a story and retell the same story after several hours. This procedure was repeated four times within a month in the same conditions. The researchers analyzed the data using the procedures provided by Ellis and Barkhuizen (2005). The data analysis showed that each participant was following a different pattern of development which was no similar to that of the others. So, we can conclude that teachers should not expect individual student to follow the same developmental patterns. Performance of students will differ in different contexts. It is also understood that L2 learners are doing differently even after one hour.
  • An investigation into the needs analysis of the employees at foreign investment service centers: A case study

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : محمد عبداللهی گیلانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Mohammad Abdollahi-Guilani
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study attempted to analyze the views of the employees at the foreign investment service centers in Guilan and Qazvin about the importance of English as a foreign language in their work places. It also aimed at finding out if they needed an ESP program in particular to improve the quality of their performance at their workplaces. To conduct the study, a questionnaire which covered four main domains (e.g. demographic information, language need, self-perceived knowledge of language level and need for ESP programs) was given to 126 employees and their managers. There was also one open-ended question plus an interview with a sample population. The study revealed that a majority of the respondents held a strong positive attitude toward learning English. The participants of the study generally felt the need for language programs as this could facilitate their work and give more quality to their performance. In addition, it was found that the immediate need of the employees was to improve their speaking and writing skills more than the listening and reading ones as they had more face-to-face and correspondence contacts with the foreigners.
  • Self-Perceived Communication Competence and Self-Assessment in EFL speaking courses: exploring possible relationships

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : maryam azadmousavi
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr Karim Sadeghi and Maryam Azadmousavi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This paper reports on a study that delved into the concept of self-assessment in the form of task-free and task-based assessment. In fact, the present study was an attempt to spot the possible relationships between the two types of self-assessment and learners’ self-perceived communicative competence in speaking activities. To this end, forty eight upper-intermediate and advanced language learners were recruited to participate in the study. A self-perceived communicative competence questionnaire, learners’ self-assessment (task-based and task-free) scores and teachers’ assessment of learners speaking were the main sources of data collection procedures. The results revealed significant differences between learners’ task-based and task-free self-assessment in speaking tasks. Besides, learners’ self-perceived communicative competence and their self-assessment of speaking were found to be highly related. Finally, the data analyses demonstrated a positive relationship between learners and teachers in terms of their assessment criteria. The present study calls for an incorporation of the tenets of self-assessment in the second language education.
  • Self-Perceived Communication Competence and Self-Assessment in EFL speaking courses: exploring possible relationships

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : maryam azadmousavi
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr Karim Sadeghi and Maryam Azadmousavi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This paper reports on a study that delved into the concept of self-assessment in the form of task-free and task-based assessment. In fact, the present study was an attempt to spot the possible relationships between the two types of self-assessment and learners’ self-perceived communicative competence in speaking activities. To this end, forty eight upper-intermediate and advanced language learners were recruited to participate in the study. A self-perceived communicative competence questionnaire, learners’ self-assessment (task-based and task-free) scores and teachers’ assessment of learners speaking were the main sources of data collection procedures. The results revealed significant differences between learners’ task-based and task-free self-assessment in speaking tasks. Besides, learners’ self-perceived communicative competence and their self-assessment of speaking were found to be highly related. Finally, the data analyses demonstrated a positive relationship between learners and teachers in terms of their assessment criteria. The present study calls for an incorporation of the tenets of self-assessment in the second language education.
  • The Wash Back Effect of Dynamic Assessment on Reading comprehension Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : شیما بهشتی
    سایر نویسندگان : Mohammad Ahmadi Safa and Shima Beheshti
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Dynamic assessment (DA) seems to provide learners with a more complete picture of what the individuals are capable of, and offer beneficial washbacks to learners and teachers. This study attempted to investigate the possible washback effects of dynamic assessment , and the difference between the effectiveness of interventionist and interactionist DA on reading comprehension developement of intermediate EFL learners .To this end, 90 intermediate female EFL learners were chosen from two English language institutes. This study included two experimental groups (30 female students in each group) and one control group (30 female students). In the first experimental group, the interactionist DA approach, and in the second experimental group, the interventionist DA approach were used. However, in the control group, conventional and static approaches to teaching and testing were applied. To answer the research questions, three one way ANOVA tests, three paired t-tests, and three Scheffe post-hoc tests were used. The data obtained showed that interactionist DA, interventionist DA, and static assessment were respectively the most effective teaching and testing methods for the intermediate EFL learners reading comprehension improvement.
  • The Effects of Different Types of Output on EFL Learners’ Oral Task Performance in Terms of Accuracy

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : علی شفائی
    سایر نویسندگان : Ali Shafaei, PhD candidate in TEFL, Urmia University, Urmia Email: Shafaeiali64@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The comprehensible output hypothesis states that learning takes place when a learner encounters a gap in his or her linguistic knowledge of the second language (L2). By noticing this gap, the learner becomes aware of it and may be able to modify his output so that he learns something new about the language. Many studies have been carried out on the basis of this hypothesis and yielded different findings on the role of output in L2 learners’ second language development. However, one of the rarely explored areas has been concerned with the effects of different types of output, especially the modified ones, on EFL learners’ language development and production. Thus, the present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of output, modified output and interactionally modified output on EFL learners' oral task performance in terms of accuracy. For the purpose of this study, sixty learners of English both male and female and of intermediate proficiency level were chosen as the participants of the study. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups of output, modified output, and interactionally-modified output based on the instruction they received during the treatment. They were instructed for fifteen sessions and at the final session they were given a text to provide a summary of it as the post-test of the study. The oral production of the learners were transcribed and quantified according to the measure of accuracy proposed by Ellis (2003). The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between the performances of the learners who made modifications in their output and those who did not make any modifications. The results of this study may have some implications for second language researchers, language teachers, and syllabus designers.
  • Analysis of the Relationship between Occupational Stress and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : moloud mohammadi
    سایر نویسندگان : Moloud Mohammadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate the occupational stress and emotional intelligence level of teachers with different teaching experience and educational levels, and to study its relation with demographic features. Moreover, the study investigated how demographic features of EFL teachers may influence the occupational stress level and also emotional intelligence grade. The sample of study included 192 EFL teachers. The research is a descriptive study in which two questionnaires of Perceived Stress Level (Cohen et al., 1983) and Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (Schutte et al., 1998) were used in data collection process and Pearson correlation coefficient was applied in order to investigate the relationship between these two sets of variables. The results represented that; there are strong positive relationships between stress management variable and use of emotion, and also use of emotion and management of personal emotions and the use of others’ emotions; there is a negative correlation between variables of stress and stress management. The analysis of independent t-test showed that a. there is a statistically significant difference between gender and the use of emotions, b. educational level and stress level, c. educational level and stress management of EFL teachers.
  • Academic self-concept and Language Achievement

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سید مصطفی حسینی
    سایر نویسندگان : Seyed Mostafa Hosseini
  • چکیده مقاله:
    According to research, academic self-concept and language performance are mutually interdependent. In the present study, the aim was to see if there is any significant difference between self-concept of high school students in terms of gender and to determine the relationship between the academic self-concept and the language performance of students in English as a foreign language. The participants were 320 students studying in 3rd grade of high school in Zanjan province who were chosen using intact sampling method. The data collection instrument for academic self-concept was Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (ASCQ) (Liu & Wang, 2005) which consists of 20 items. For obtaining data regarding the students’ Performance, the student’s marks in their final exam of high school in the high school were used. Correlation among variables was measured through Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, and a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was applied to find differences in sub-groups
  • On the Relationship between Deductive/ Inductive Reasoning and Writing Fluency of Iranian TEFL Students across Gender

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : نگین امیری کار
    سایر نویسندگان : 1, Negin Amirikar 2, Farahnaz Rimani Nikou
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Critical thinking is a hotly debated topic. Many studies, to date, have been carried out on varied aspects of critical thinking, but its central role in relation to productive skills might seem to have gone partially unnoticed. To address this neglected area, the present correlational study was designed to probe into the relationship between critical thinking skills (deductive/inductive reasoning) and writing fluency of Iranian TEFL learners across gender. To this end, one-hundred forty students who were homogeneous in their language proficiency constituted the participants of the present study. As for the data collection, California Critical Thinking Test (form B), measuring deductive/ inductive reasoning, was administered to the participants. Then, researcher asked the participants to write on a given topic and their writing fluency was measured by words per T-units. To fulfill the inter-rater reliability, two language teachers were employed to measure writing fluency. The obtained correlation coefficient was 0.98, so a strong relationship between two sets of given scores for the fluency of writing was found. The data were mainly analyzed through running Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results revealed that there was a positive relationship between deductive/inductive reasoning and writing fluency. For years, it has been observed that Iranian EFL students suffer from weaknesses in expressing their original thoughts in writing in a foreign language. This study can provide direct benefits to the administrators, teachers, lesson planners at the universities and institutes where an increasing number of EFL students ask for a good instruction that make them successful and skilled writers.
  • راهبردهای یادگیری واژگان مورد استفاده توسط زبان آموزان مقطع کارشناسی

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Nasim Valizadeh
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr. Karim Sadeghi, Nasim valizadeh, Azadeh Hamidi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Vocabulary is known as the building block of any language and success in vocabulary learning is highly in correlation with second language competence. Research into how different learners acquire vocabulary can help better understand the process of SLA. The thrust of this study was to investigate using two vocabulary learning strategies (psycholinguistic and meta-cognitive for learning vocabulary) by male and female learners. Relevant vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire adapted from Kudo(1999) were administered to 90(Female=55, Male=35) EFL undergraduate students at Urmia University to collect data on the frequency of vocabulary learning strategies. The results were analyzed via SPSS and revealed slightly higher frequency for both psycholinguistic and meta-cognitive strategy use by female respondents while only 16 out of 44 VLS are being used infrequently. The study offers insights on the use of more effective vocabulary learning strategies to better L2 acquisition.
  • Learners’ Attitudes toward Using Dynamic Assessment in Teaching and Assessing IELTS Writing Task One

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : پروین بابامرادی
    سایر نویسندگان : Parvin Babamoradi University of Zanjan, Iran Dr. Mahdi Nasiri University of Zanjan, Iran Dr. Elham Mohammadi University of Zanjan, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract Regarding the importance and complexity of writing among the EFL language learners, this study explored the learners’ attitudes toward teaching and testing writing through Computerized Dynamic Assessment (CDA). The participants of this study were 22 Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. All the participants were adults and participated in this study voluntarily. To meet the aim of the study, the researchers developed software which contained 11 series of multiple-choice questions tests. Throughout each test, participants received feedback based on their needs and within their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). After each session and test, the learners were required to write down their attitudes toward the effectiveness of CDA in teaching and testing writing. The participants wrote their attitudes in a form of diary. At the end, their diaries were analyzed and it was revealed that all the learners had positive attitudes toward the implementation of CDA in teaching writing.
  • The Effects of Graphic Organizer Strategy on Improving Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : الناز شعاری
    سایر نویسندگان : Elnaz Shoari
  • چکیده مقاله:
    For many learners reading is definitely the most important language skill. It even becomes more challenging when it comes to EFL learners with their limited exposure to target language and insufficient opportunity to make use of target language in real situations. There is no doubt that Graphic Organizers are effective instructional tools of language teaching. Graphic Organizer is a visual and graphic display that represents information in a variety of ways. A graphic organizer demonstrates the relationships between facts, terms and ideas within learning task and makes incremental growth. Accordingly the current study aimed at investigating the effect of Graphic Organizer Strategy on Improving Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Sixty female learners participated in this quasi-experimental research which lasted for one academic semester. For the purposes of this study, 60 learners were divided into two groups. Before the treatment, both groups were administered a reading comprehension pretest. The experimental group (n=30) was taught reading comprehension through Graphic Organizers. However, the control group (n=30) received the traditional instruction of reading comprehension. At the end of the study a post-test was administered to both groups. The results of t-test indicated that Graphic Organizers had a considerably positive effect on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The positive effects of Graphic Organizers are due to their effectiveness in matching the mind and making reasonable links between concepts, and facilitating the process of meaningful learning.
  • The Effect of Reading Poems on Improving Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : محمدرضا اسماعیلی چینیجانی
    سایر نویسندگان : محمدرضا اسماعیلی چینیجانی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The potential role of reading in language learning cannot be downgraded. It gains more importance when it comes to reading poems with their rich and meaningful data. Thus the current study aimed at investigating the effect of reading poems on improving Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. Sixty male students participated in this study which completed in one academic semester. The participants were divided into two groups: one experimental group in which students were taught new vocabulary items through reading poems, and one control group whose students were taught the identical items through traditional instruction. Before starting the program a pretest was directed on learners’ vocabulary knowledge. Then the intervention commenced. At the end of the study, one posttest was conducted for measuring the effectiveness of the treatment. The results of the study indicated that poems are of significant role in the process of vocabulary learning. Firstly it might be due to the role of poems in providing learners with relaxed atmosphere; secondly poems are short and comprehensive and full of fun. Poems also are multivocal, and increase learners’ motivation in more than one way.
  • The Comparative Effect of CAVL and Contextual Clues on Junior High School Students’ Reading Comprehension

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سعید نمازپور
    سایر نویسندگان : Farahnaz Rimani Nikoo Masoomeh Zakavat Gharebagh Saeed Namazpoor
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract Reading is one of the most useful and critical skills for daily life. People usually read different kinds of material because they want to obtain information about a specific subject (Farhady, 2005). Moreover, computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) and contextual clues can pave the way toward the enhancement of dull lessons in reading comprehension into interesting EFL classes, especially in junior high school (Esmaeili Fard & Nabifar, 2011; Johnson, Perry, & Shamir, 2010; Kiani, 2011; Rokni & Niknaqsh, 2013; VanWyk & Louw, 2008). This study is an attempt to explore the effectiveness of applying CAVL (Computer Assisted Vocabulary Learning) and contextual clues on junior high school students’ reading comprehension. The presumption was that CAVL and contextual clues would play a crucial role in reading comprehension among the intended groups of learners. In the similar vein, comparing the possible different roles of CAVL and contextual clues on students’ reading comprehension was another objective pursued in this study. To carry out the study, 88 homogeneous EFL learners were selected through Cambridge Young Learners English Test and were randomly assigned into a control group and two experimental groups. Before the treatment sessions, the researcher designed a reading test based on the content of the text books, and piloted it with another 29 participants; the test was afterwards administered as the pre-test in the three groups. During the treatment, the control group was taught using the current text book-based method, without applying any computerized software and contextual clues strategies. The first experimental group was taught with the aid of specially-designed pedagogical software and the second group was taught how to use clues. To measure the degree of the participants’ reading comprehension after the treatment sessions, the teacher-made post-test was applied. The results of a paired-samples t-test revealed that the application of CAVL and contextual clues had a significant effect on junior high school students’ reading comprehension. Moreover, the results of a one-way between-groups ANOVA indicated that CAVL and contextual clues had a similar effect on both experimental groups.
  • LORD BYRON`S “DARKNESS”: A PERSONAL APOCALYPSE

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Farah Ghaderi
    سایر نویسندگان : Farah Ghaderi Maria Farnam
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Lord Byron`s poem “Darkness” has been generallylooked at as a religious poem which is directly pointing to Apocalypse. Even though there are some connections between the imagery of “Darkness” and religious thought, the poem does not incorporate all the elements of Apocalypse in its dominant understanding. Drawing on Lord Byron’s life and letters, this article aims to highlight the dark outlook of the poet at the time when he wrote this poem. Accordingly, it argues that “Darkness” could be considered as Lord Byron’s personal apocalypse.
  • THE DEPICTION OF MIND-FORGED MANACLES IN WILLIAM BLAKE’S “AH! SUN-FLOWER”

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Farah Ghaderi
    سایر نویسندگان : Farah Ghaderi Farnaz Aghayari
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Blake’s “Ah! Sun-flower” portrays the lonely Sun-flower and its insatiable thirst for reaching “ sweet golden clime”. Blake’s stance on the fashion of this yearning has been the subject of a considerable number of scholarly inspections, straddling mythological and apocalyptic sardonicism. This article revisits the poem by deploying a new lens. It provides a rereading of the sardonic tone of the poem utilizing the concept of “mind-forged manacles”. It argues that rather than targeting apocalypse, the sardonic tone of the poem aims to denounce the application of fatal methods and unnecessary deprivations of natural needs in order to reach that golden terrain.
  • Comparative analysis of Persian and English advertisements in terms of creativity from a Systematic Functional Point of View

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مقصود حسني مهر
    سایر نویسندگان : مقصود حسني مهر - حميده نامي انرجان
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Nowadays our daily life is surrounded by hundereds of advertisements delivered through mass media. Print advertisements are ones that are composed of two modes namely verbal texts and visual images. In advertising the elements of visual design like color, images and typography mix with written language to create a semiotic whole in order to influence the reader. The combination of verbal and visual elements are done in different ways to inject the creativity in advertising. This creativity is one of the most important elements in designing advertisements. This paper, with reference to the Systemic Functional Approach, analyzes image-text combination in advertisements. The purpose of this research is to do a comparitive study of Persian and English advertisements within Martinec and Salway's (2005) taxonomy that is based on Halliday's logico-semantics, and also Liu and O'Halloran's (2009) Parallel structure based on Halliday's transitivity aiming to find the kind of relationships connecting text and image that are used by advertisers. A sample of twenty English and twenty Persian advertisements is analyzed in this study. The data are analyzsd from both Martinec and Salway's (2005) taxonomy and Liu and O'Halloran's (2009) Parallel structure. Results show the lack of creativity and diversity in Persian advertising. On the other hand English advertisers use various kinds of image-text combinations to add presuasive features to advertisements. The result of the present study is hoped to be helpful for advertisers to add variety to their works.
  • The effects of pre-task planning length on Iranian EFL learners’ Self-repairs

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مسعود سعیدی
    سایر نویسندگان : Masoud Saeedi Maryam Farnia
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study was conducted to provide a psycholinguistically valid account of the effects pre-task planning time exerts on second language (L2) learners’ performance. To this aim, the researchers analyzed English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ self-repair behavior under different amounts of pre-task planning time in terms of frequency and types of self-corrections they effectuated. The participants were forty-five (n=45) intermediate Iranian learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) who were randomly assigned to three groups of fifteen each. Whilst the control group had no opportunity for planning available before performing a narrative task, the two experimental groups were allowed five and ten minutes to plan, respectively. The results of one-way ANOVAs revealed that the length of planning time significantly contributes to the frequency and type of self-repairs L2 learners perform. Precisely, it was observed that performing the task under the ten minute planning time induces learners to effectuate significantly more appropriacy (A-repairs) and different information (D-repairs). In addition, the results revealed that the number of error (E-repairs) did not increase with more planning time. The theoretical and pedagogical implications of the findings were discussed in the light of Ahmadian et al.’s (2012) Extended Trade-off Hypothesis speaking to the importance of providing an empirically grounded account of the effects of planning on the psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying L2 learners’ performance.
  • The Relationship between Self-perceived Communication Competence and Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-repair Behavior

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مسعود سعیدی
    سایر نویسندگان : Masoud Saeedi Maryam Farnia
  • چکیده مقاله:
    As an individual variable, self-perceived communication competence (SPCC) indicates an individual’s perception of how well she can handle communicative events in different contexts. This article reports on a study that explored the association between the English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ ratings of SPCC and the psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying their second language (L2) speech production. The study involved fifty (n=50) intermediate Iranian EFL learners who were asked to narrate a story based on a sequenced set of pictures. The results showed that whereas higher ratings of SPCC positively correlated with the frequency of effectuating different information (D-repairs) and appropriacy (A-repairs), there was a negative relationship between SPCC and error (E-repairs). Put differently, those learners who perceived themselves as being communicatively more competent were found to be mainly interested in conveying their message differently and more appropriately rather than correcting it for lexico-grammatical errors. The findings suggest that the variable of SPCC should be taken into account when analyzing L2 learners output as it significantly influences L2 learners’ orientation to tasks.
  • THE TRUMPETER OF THE APOCALYPSE IN SHELLEY’S “ODE TO THE WEST WIND”

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Farah Ghaderi
    سایر نویسندگان : Farah Ghaderi Hamed Ghazizadeh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Even though Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind” has generated much insightful commentary since its publication, the role of the poet as a trumpeter has been generally sidelined. This article explores the image of the poet focusing on the last five lines of the ode. It reads the poem through an apocalyptic lens drawing on Shelley’s “A Defence of Poetry”. It argues that the poet is like the trumpeter of the apocalypse who blows the west wind into the apocalyptic trumpet to disseminate his words and thoughts among humankind in order to awaken them. The study, thus, aims to provide a more perspicuous definition of the role of the poet that leads to a better understanding of Shelley’s oeuvre. It further seeks to establish a framework for the poet moving beyond the settled regulations of a canonical poet of Romantic era.
  • Life Drive vs. Death Drive: A Freudian Reading of Anna Karenina

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : آسیه خلیفه زاده
    سایر نویسندگان : آسیه خلیفه زاده
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The beautiful world Leo Tolstoy depicts in Anna Karenina, changes for the better for one character and for the worse for another, as love comes in. This novel has drawn the attention of many critics for its realistic plot and marvelous character development and has proven to be of high interest for those who are interested in psychoanalytical theories. In a different fashion, this article aims to analyze Anna Karenina on the light of Freud’s theories of Mourning and Melancholia and Life Drive and Death Drive to show how different elements can intensify the gravity of these two mental disorders and how they are interwoven in the two chosen character’s lives and psyches.
  • the effect Collaborative Strategic Reading on EFL learners' reading autonomy

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : سامان پرسم
    سایر نویسندگان : Saman porsam- Negin Hooshmand Fateh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study is an attempt to explore the effect of teaching "Collaborative Strategic Reading" (CSR) on EFL learners’ reading autonomy. CSR is a set of instructional strategies to improve reading comprehension among students. To fullfill this objective, a group of 90 EFL learners, within the age range of 15 to 17 years old (Mage = 16), attending English classes at Behjat High School took a piloted sample of PET as a proficiency test, 60 of them are selected as a homogeneous learners and are divided into two groups of CSR and control group. In the next step a reading autonomy questionnaire is administered as a pre-test to both groups. All classes of the two groups are instructed by the same teacher using the same material. The only difference is that the CSR group receieve CSR strategy training based on Klingner, Vaughan, & Schumm Model (2001), while the Control group receive routine process of teaching reading in English classes. At the end of the training the reading autonomy questionnaire is administered once again as a posttest. The analyses of the questionnaire scores using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Mann-Whitney U test reveal that the two groups are significantly different in terms of their reading autonomy, in other words the difference between the means of the pre-test and posttest for CSR group proved the significant effect of the treatments on the level of reading autonomy of CSR group, while the difference between the means of the pre-test and posttest of Control group was not significant. The implication is that, the teachers can use CSR strategy to make learners have better level of reading autonomy. In other words this strategy can increase the awareness of the participants and consequently yield better results in their reading performances.
  • Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward Bilingual Education: Context and Proficiency Level Explored

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : رقیه پوربهرام
    سایر نویسندگان : رقیه پوربهرام
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In the era of information and communication, the relation between people of different cultures and languages has expanded widely. Meanwhile language as a first factor in establishing these relationships has been the focus of attention for many scholars. Considering the popularity and importance of bilingual education in language learning subject, the present study investigated EFL learners' attitudes towards bilingual education. A total number of 184 EFL learners were randomly chosen from private language institutes and university. The learners comprised of two different proficiency levels (i.e., beginners vs. advanced). A questionnaire was utilized to find out the learners’ attitude about bilingual education. The results of the independent samples T-test indicated that there was not any significant difference among learners' attitudes in different proficiency levels with regard to bilingual education. However, it was found that EFL learners of language institute had more positive attitudes towards bilingual education than their counterparts at university. Findings of this study will help curriculum developers and syllabus designers to adapt their teaching materials to learners’ demands.
  • The Effect of Cartoons on Improving Iranian Young EFL Learners’ Speaking Performance

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : زهره تحویلدار
    سایر نویسندگان : Zohreh Tahvildar* PhD Candidate Department of English, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran zohreth2000@yahoo.com Haniye Davatgari Asl Assistant Professor hdavatgar@ymail.com Department of English, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract Your speaking can reveal as much about your individual history as your appearance. Speaking is one of the four macro skills to be gained as a means of efficient communication in both first and second language education contexts. Thus the current study aimed at investigating the potential role of English Cartoons on improving Iranian young EFL learners’ speaking ability. Sixty elementary level (all female) learners have participated in the Quasi-experimental study which lasted for one academic semester. There were two groups –one as experimental and the other as control. The results indicated that the authenticity of the cartoons leads to enhancing speaking ability. Since cartoons are made for native users of languages for native use, thus are of seriously effective role in the process of language learning in general and language learning in particular. Keywords: cartoons, speaking performance, Iranian EFL learners
  • The Content Analysis of the Junior High School English Textbooks of Iran and Iraq with an Emphasis on Critical Thinking

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : کمال یحیی پور
    سایر نویسندگان : دکتر الهام ظرف ساز، کمال یحیی پور
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Despite curriculum emphasis on critical thinking, there is not any motivation and willingness to encourage students' critical thinking skills; moreover, in spite of the claims on the importance of critical thinking in developing and facilitating more and better training,lecturers only provide some formalized and regular approaches to memorization rather than critically thinking (Maleki & Habibi-pour, 2007). Thus, this study aimed at comparing the contents of fourth grade high school English textbooks of Iran and Iraq with respect to critical thinking. The instruments included all fourth-grade high school English textbooks of Iran and Iraq, in which the parts related to students' critical thinking were selected as the study sample. Taking notes was the main tool of the study. Research question was examined using content analysis method by William Roman. The results showed that fourth grade high school English textbooks of Iraq considered creative thinking in all three units of texts,questions and illustrations more than the Iranian one. Implications are discussed in terms of enhancing critical thinking in Iranian textbooks
  • Investigating the Effectiveness of Different Techniques of Focus on Form Instruction for Vocabulary Learning

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Farzin Khalili
    سایر نویسندگان : Farzin Khalili
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study investigated the effects of the different techniques of focus on form instruction on the EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. Based on this aim, first, 132 intermediate-level male EFL learners were selected from among the language learners of a private language institute in Urmia (Iran) as the participants of the study based on their results on a proficiency test. Second, the selected participants were randomly assigned to: input flood, recast, visual input enhancement, negotiation, output enhancement, and dictogloss groups with 22 learners in each group. Third, all of the groups took the vocabulary pretest of the study in order to determine their vocabulary knowledge before the treatment of the study. Fourth, each of the groups received its appropriate treatment during 10 sessions in 35-day period. Fifth, all of the groups took the immediate vocabulary posttest of the study for the determination of the short-term effects of the different techniques of focus on form instruction on the participants’ vocabulary learning. Finally, the delayed vocabulary posttest of the study was administered to the groups of the study after a 1-month period for the determination of the long-term effects of focus on form techniques. T-test and ANOVA were employed for the data analysis of the study. The results of the study showed that, the dictogloss, output enhancement, and visual input enhancement techniques had significant positive effects on the participants’ short-term vocabulary learning. However, as the results revealed, the input enhancement technique did not have a significant effect on the learners’ long-term vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, based on the results, the dictogloss, output enhancement, and visual input enhancement techniques were respectively the first, the second, and the third most effective techniques of focus on form instruction for the learning of second language vocabulary. The results of the present study may provide useful guiding principles for the EFL teachers and syllabus designers.
  • Exploring the Influence of Pre-thematic, Thematic and Post-thematic Contextual Visual Aids on the Reading Comprehension Ability of Adults EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : شهرام اسفندیاری اصل
    سایر نویسندگان : Shahram Esfandiari Asl Esmail Panahandeh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    One of the main difficulties of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners is their weakness in reading comprehension. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of contextual visual aids on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension ability. To do this, a quasi-experimental study was designed and 96 EFL participants were chosen out of 150 learners through a homogeneity test. The main participants of the study were assigned to three experimental groups (pre-thematic, thematic and post-thematic) and one control group. Data for the present study was collected by means of three tests: a PET test, a pretest and a posttest of reading comprehension. A one-way analysis of variances (one-way ANOVA) was run to analyze the research hypotheses posed in this study. The findings revealed that contextual visual aids had a statistically significant effect on Adult EFL learners' reading comprehension ability and among the contextual visual aids, pre-thematic aids had the highest effect on the learners’ reading comprehension ability. The findings could be employed by English teachers, EFL learners, and materials developers in the field of ELT in the Iranian context to pave the way for the improvement of ELT status in the EFL classes.
  • Digital Storytelling in EFL Classroom: A Pathway to Improve Writing Skills

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مهری رزمی
    سایر نویسندگان : Mehri Razmi - Soheila Pourali - Farahnaz Rimani Nikou
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study analyses the results of the application of digital storytelling in an Iranian undergraduate EFL classroom to see the effects of using digital storytelling techniques in the improvement of learners’ writing competence. Participants were divided into two groups by the researchers/instructors. One group created their digital stories of the given stories selected from Perrine’s literature course book. All stories were presented one by one during the course. After each presentation, the students were asked to write a review of each classmate’s digital story in line with a list of standards provided by the researchers/instructors. The other group was asked to read the given stories and then paraphrase them as a summary work. Both groups were tested for their writing competence by the end of the course. The findings of this study showed that digital storytelling technique can effectively help EFL learners to develop better writing skills and it can be considered as an essential tool in foreign language learning and teaching.
  • Cognitive Task Complexity (Single vs. Dual task) and Learner’s Linguistic Performance in L2 Writing

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : نسرین ثناجو
    سایر نویسندگان : Nasrin Sanajou Leila Zohali Fatemeh Zabili
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study examined the effects of cognitive task complexity on writing performance of Iranian EFL learners. Furthermore, another goal of the study was to see the results were in line with which of the Skehan’s (1998) Limited Attentional Model (LAC) or Robinson’s (2005) Cognition Hypothesis (CH). Task complexity was manipulated along Robinson’s proposed single task (i.e. doing one task) vs. dual task (i.e. doing two or more tasks simultaneously). It is argued that L2 learners’ written performance is influenced by the complexity of task, so the writing performance of the learners was analyzed in terms of accuracy, fluency, lexical complexity, and syntactic complexity. Participants of the study were 76 Iranian EFL learners who randomly assigned to two groups with 38 learners in each group. Learners of one group performed the single task (i.e. narrate the story from a picture strip), and participants of the other group performed the dual task (i.e. find the correct order of pictures of the picture strip which were disordered and narrate the story of the picture strip). The results indicated that regarding accuracy, participants of the single task produced greater error-free T-units compared to participants of the dual task. Regarding the other dimensions of performance including, fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, although there were a trend toward higher fluency, higher lexical and syntactic complexity in the single task, the differences were not significant. Altogether, the results of the present study were in line with Skehan’s (1998) LAC model.
  • Trace of Orientalism in the Animation Perspolis

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : sara barghool
    سایر نویسندگان : Sara Barghool
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In recent years there has been a great interest in studying different texts and trying to find the ideological factors which are hidden in those texts. There is a kind of cold war in which the West tries to impose power and dominance over the East not through overt actions but via media especially the television. This paper studies the animation Perspolis which is a narrative biography of an Iranian young girl and her experiences during the Islamic Republic of Iran with regard to the Iranophobia and Islamophobia presented in it which mirrors the Orientalist approach toward Iranians.
  • The effect of the acquisition of word meanings while reading in English as a foreign language among Iranian learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : parisa ahmadi
    سایر نویسندگان : Parisa Ahmadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study investigated the nature of the involvement load in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional allocation during target word verification (evaluation), and changes in lexical input processing. This study also addressed the relationships between inferencing and retention. A questionnaire on self-reported strategy utilized during the attentional allocation during target word verification task was designed to assess motivation and cognitive involvement. A repeated-measures design was used with a cross-sectional sample of 30 adult L2 learners of English. Participants read narratives (one more and one less familiar) that contained nonsense words. They guessed the meanings of the unknown words. After reading all of the texts, participants completed an inference verification task whose goal was to confirm or to correct guesses and to encourage deeper processing of unknown words. This was followed by a test of target word episodic memory (yes/no verification) and a strategy questionnaire. Afterward, participants completed two tests that measured receptive retention of meaning. Analyses revealed differential effects of the reader-based variables across the different aspects of lexical input processing. Results revealed how reader-based factors also affect learner involvement and lexical input processing. The results provide useful indications for further research and also highlight the need for targeted instruction on teaching reading skill and ESP reading courses. The findings have important implications on how word meaning acquisition might improve field related research articles comprehension in English.
  • Explicit instruction of lexical bundles in a TOEFL Preparation Course for Iranian EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Nooshin Nateghian
    سایر نویسندگان : Nooshin nateghian
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Lexical bundles through their specific functions in texts have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Competent users of language use these multi-word sequences in their language production, while novice users may not fully appreciate their rich potentials. This quasi-experimental study investigated explicit instruction of four-word lexical bundles to a group of university students (N=20) in a TOEFL preparation class. To this end, at first, the researchers identified four-word lexical bundles in TOEFL model essays through Kf-Ngram (Fletcher, 2007) and employed them as target bundles for explicit instruction in the study. After collecting one essay from the participants, they took part in a one-month lexical bundle instruction, awareness-raising and controlled writing activities as part of their essay writing course. Adopting lexical bundle analysis framework of Biber et al. (1999), the researchers analyzed pre-test and post-test essays in terms of the frequency of lexical bundles as well as their functions. This study found that explicit lexical instruction did not produce any positive result on the use of lexical bundles. However, students' awareness was increased and this might help them in long-term to improve their discourse.
  • Instructional Efficacy of Corpus-Based Tools in Teaching Collocations to Iranian University Students with Different Specialized Domains

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : جواد اکبری
    سایر نویسندگان : Javad Akbari
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) has been frequently utilized in EAP classrooms and reconsidered in light of various domain-specific corpora. Although well-received, the AWL has been criticized for ignoring the fact that words tend to show irregular distributions and be used in different ways across disciplines that such difference concerns collocations. The present study investigated the instructional efficacy of corpus-based tools in teaching collocations to Iranian university students with different specialized domains. After administering the Solution Placement Test, participants were divided into control and experimental groups. Each group included seventy-five students with three specialized domains, namely; law, dentistry, and physical education. The experimental group was taught the collocations and lexical chunks through using corpus-based tools and the control group was taught through traditional method in which they did not receive any instructional tools, innovative materials, and instruments. The findings indicated that teaching collocations through corpus-based tools was of significant help to the students' retention and learning of collocations. Furthermore, the results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in both post-test and delayed post-test. The findings of the present study may offer .implications to EFL teachers, materials developers, and curriculum designers
  • A Study of the Effectiveness of the Aspect Hypothesis in the Explanation of the Iranian EFL Learners’ Morphological Development

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : لادن بخشعلی نژاد
    سایر نویسندگان : LadanBakhshalinezhad, (M.A.)
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In the Aspect Hypothesis, it is claimed that the language learners’ use of the tense-aspect markings of the second language is influenced by the lexical aspectual class of the employed verbs. The present study investigated the effectiveness of the claims of the Aspect Hypothesis in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context of Iran. Based on this aim, first, 20 beginner-level EFL learners were randomly selected from among the language learners of a private language institute in Maku (Iran) as the participants of the study. Second, the researcher obtained written consent from the participants’ parents to record their oral interactions in the classroom. Furthermore, she obtained their consent to use the participants’ written narratives for the present study. Third, in order to collect the data of the study, the researcher observed the participants’productive second language use for 26 months. During this observation period, she recorded the participants’ oral interactions and oral narratives of certain short stories, and collected the participants’ written narratives of the short stories. The results of the study showed that, past tense morphology respectively appeared in the achievements, accomplishments, and activities. Moreover, based on the results, the past tense morpheme was not employed with the states. It was argued that, the Aspect Hypothesis was able to explain the EFL learners’ variable use of the second language morphology. The results of the present study may have both practical and theoretical implications for EFL teachers and syllabus designers.
  • The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ learning styles and their self-regulated learning: do gender and level of proficiency matter?

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Mohammad Shaker Khoshroudi
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr. Goudarz Alibakhshi Allameh Tabatabai University-Tehran Mohammad Shaker Khoshroudi PhD Candidate Islamic Azad University, North Branch-Tehran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ (beginner, Intermediate, & Advanced) language learning styles and their self-regulated learning. It also aimed at investigating the interaction among learners’ gender, level of proficiency, self-regulated learning, and learning styles. To do so, the participants were selected through multi-stage sampling procedure. In the first stage, among the universities in Tehran, five universities were selected through purposive sampling. Then, 200 students majoring in English language, literature, and translation studies were selected through convenience sampling. The participants were divided into three groups, i.e. beginner, intermediate, and advanced based on their scores on the TOEFL test. Finally, among each group, thirty students were selected randomly. The results of the study at first indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between beginner, intermediate, and advanced EFL students’ learning styles and their self-regulation. Therefore, it could be strongly argued that the higher the students’ scores on language learning styles are, the more self-regulated they are. Also, the researcher could not find any significant relationship between language learners’ learning styles with their gender which means males and females did not differ in their styles of language learning. The results also showed that self-regulation and gender have no significant interaction i.e. in other words both males and females are self-regulated in the same way. In addition, EFL learners’ proficiency significantly affects their self-regulation. However, in this study learners’ level of proficiency did not affect their learning styles.
  • Pragmatic Transfer of Iranian EFL Learners': The case of Refusals

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : فاطمه جعفري
    سایر نویسندگان : فاطمه جعفري
  • چکیده مقاله:
    L2 learners often develop grammatical competence in the absence of concomitant pragmatic competence (Bardovi-Harlig & Hartford, 1990, 1993). Pragmatic transfer is a research field in interlanguage pragmatics, which is known as the influence exerted by learners’ pragmatic knowledge of languages and cultures other than second language on their comprehension, production and learning of second language pragmatic information (Kasper, 1992: 207). Many studies show that in spite of having a perfect competence in L2 grammar, learners have difficulties at pragmatic level when having a conversation with native speakers. The present study deals with pragmatic transfer of Iranian EFL learners' refusal strategies as reflected by their responses to a modified version of 10- items discourse multiple choice task. Each question in the questionare has three options. One of the options is correct, one is a distracter and one is an option that has been effected by learners' L1. The participants are 60 Iranian EFL learners in advanced level that haven’t been to English speaking countries. The purpose of this study is to find out the pragmatic competence of EFL learners in Iran. This study first investigates pragmatic failures that Iranian EFL learners tend to commit in understanding pragmatic multiple choice tasks and answering the questions. Then, building on the analysis of the collected data, it further discusses the amount of the pragmatic failures among Iranian EFL learners and the source of this failure. The results of the study show that all of Iranian EFL learners commit pragmatic failure and answered more than 72 percent of the questions incorrectly.The resulats show that almost half of the pragmatic failure of Iranian EFL learners are due to L1 interference. The results of the present study are useful for language teachers and syllabus designers.
  • Complexity Theory: Iterative Activities for an IELTS Class

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Seyyed Mahdi Modarres Mosadegh
    سایر نویسندگان : Naser Rashidi at naser.rashidi@shirazu.ac.ir mahdi modarres mosadegh at mahdiop@yahoo.com Shiraz University
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Designing class activities with integrated, progressive input in order to create a better chance for more potent output is always a tempting aim for IELTS teachers. However, this has been generally tried out with repetition rather than reiteration. Reiteration, as Larsen-Freeman (2015) puts it, is a property of complexity theory which refers to meaningful repetition and dynamic, spiral progression of a topic or activity. In this article the researcher tries to identify the current trends in designing repetitive tasks for classrooms through a review of pertinent seminal studies in recent years and the possible gaps these may have for an IELTS class. Accordingly, he tries to design a reiterative activity as well as a small series of them for an IELTS class. In doing so, the Kramsch’s transcultural competence (2010), Halidays’ triple relation of language to social reality (1978) and Branden’s triadic component structure (2016) are used as the initial frame model. The model proposed in this study lends support to transcultural competence as the point of departure for designing reiterative activities with major emphasis on localizing and personalizing the input. The main feature of these activities is that they revolve around one topic, but try to shift perspectives as they progress; that is, students are required to receive the integrated input of ecological tasks and try to localize the knowledge and create a more self-centered description of the activity in which everything is recounted from the speaker/writer’s point of view. Finally, the researcher attempts to evaluate the model in terms of bringing integrated productive activities i.e. speaking and writing into one IELTS class session or a series of sessions and the workable outcomes for the students. The findings show that reiterative activities, unlike repetitive activities which the exact repetition of a task is favorable, provide a multi-dimensional view of one concept. This comprehensive view can affect the way candidates approach productive tasks as they have a more fully developed concept of an issue and can exhaustively elaborate on it. The view may also be enhanced by background knowledge of the candidate and the way they personalize the concept.
  • Language Identity toward Language Proficiency Growth among Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Maryam Farnia
    سایر نویسندگان : 1. Golsa Behnam Khorasgan (Esfahan) branch, Islamic Azad University gbm_behnam@yahoo.com 2. Maryam Farnia Payame Noor University mfarnia@nj.isfpnu.ac.ir
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study investigated aspects of language identity in the Iranian context as well as Iranian ELT students’ attitudes toward English language learning. The study involved a total of 135 ELT learners, 65 of whom were low-intermediate sophomores, in their second year of B.A. program, and 70 M.A. candidates in ELT at the high-intermediate level of general English proficiency. The participants were studying at different universities in Isfahan province. To fulfill the aim of the study, a language identity questionnaire including 19 items, adapted from Khatib and Rezaei (2013), was employed as the main data collection tool to investigate all the 6 aspects of language identity. The questionnaire was given to both high-intermediate and low-intermediate groups. Besides, some participants attended a round of interviews on a random basis. Mann-Whitney U test and independent t- test were used to analyze the data obtained through the questionnaire and interviews. The purpose of the statistical analyses was to find out whether there were any changes among the students’ language identity while they made gains in English language proficiency. The results revealed that, on balance, the Iranian students held a generally positive attitude towards English language learning. In addition, it was observed that having a positive attitude towards learning English positively correlation with the participants’ proficiency level. Precisely, as the level of proficiency grows, so does the positive attitude towards English learning experience. It is hoped that the outcomes of this research study on different aspects of language identity showing the participants’ interests, will be of use for textbook designers and Iranian EFL practitioners. The results can also be of significance in that they contribute to the available body of research findings in the field of identity.
  • The cross-cultural analysis of TV talk shows with regard to conversation structuring rules

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فوزیه عباسی
    سایر نویسندگان : Elham Zarfsaz (Ph.D.) and Fuziyeh Abbasi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Exposure to native speakers' daily language is crucial in learning a foreign language effectively. Since in most of foreign language learning environments there is no or slight possibility of such exposure, applying authentic materials as TV talk show transcripts would be advantageous. In order to find the structural accuracy of TV talk show patterns the data were taken from the transcript of an episode of the famous American TV talk show, Larry King Live, and the transcript of an episode of the well-known Persian talk show, Pargar. The turn taking, adjacency pair, preference organization, pre-sequence and closing sequence systems were investigated through a comparative cross-cultural methodology to discover the degree of similarity/ dissimilarity. The results show that turn taking system is universal and cultural differences have insignificant influence on it. Although, adjacency pairs proved not analyzable due to insufficient identification criteria, it is clear that question-answer is the dominant type of adjacency pairs and the roles are pre-allocated by institutional turn-taking system. In terms of preference organization, unlike Larry King Live host and against the rules, Pargar host not only disagrees with the guests but he also participates actively. Regarding presequence system, the study shows that Iranians are more direct than Americans are in claiming the floor. Closing sequences in the transcripts display a unique structure, three-step closing. The results also show that TV talk shows are semi-institutional and host controlled. Based on the transcripts' overall adherence to naturally occurring conversation systems, the transcripts are recommended as a source of language learning material. The results are beneficial to English teachers, institute managers, syllabus designers, educational policy makers, and Iranians living abroad.
  • The Effect of portfolio application on the improvement of grammatical knowledge and writing skill of Iranian EFL learners at intermediate level

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : مهشید مدحی
    سایر نویسندگان : دکتر ارشیا کیوانفر مهشید مدحی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Current study was conducted to investigate the effect of portfolio as a pedagogical instrument on grammar knowledge and writing skill of Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level. The study focused on two dependent variables of grammar knowledge and writing skill while the method of teaching grammar in writing (with two conditions of using and not using portfolio) was the independent variable. Based on convenience sampling, 32 adult Iranian IELTS students attended in an intensive preparation course of English in two consecutive terms twice a week for 90 minutes over 5 weeks. It is necessary to mention that basic elements of an acceptable writing were presented in both control and experimental groups to make students aware of the fundamental requirements of writing. The results through ANCOVA revealed that all the null hypotheses of the study, except one, were rejected and significant differences were found between the average performance of the two portfolio and the non-portfolio groups in grammar, IELTS and PET and finally PET writing. However, no difference was found between the average performance of the two portfolio and the non-portfolio groups in IELTS. It was hence concluded that the use of portfolio can significantly improve grammar knowledge, general proficiency and to a lesser extent the writing skill of Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level. Peer-assessment, self-assessment, authenticity, sense of responsibilities, ownership in the period of implementation, cooperation among leaners, highly motivated students and student-centered class in a process-oriented approach were the results of applying portfolio.
  • The role of critical discourse analysis and critical thinking in an EFL context: A case study of economic texts

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : شبنم کورش خانشان
    سایر نویسندگان : شبنم کورش- مهسا کلانتری پورShabnam Kurosh, Mahsa Kalantarypour
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The current study was investigated to probe the effect of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ critical thinking (CT) ability in economic translation texts classes. To this end, 60 undergraduate English translation students including 22 males & 38 females were selected and then they were randomly assigned into two groups, namely, experimental and control ones. The researcher utilized a Preliminary English Test (PET) in order to homogenize the participants with regard to English proficiency level (i.e., at intermediate level) and likewise their critical thinking ability and select a sample of intermediate students from 80 EFL university students studying at Islamic Azad University in Tabriz, Iran. Each group was instructed for 12 sessions, once a week. The experimental group received instruction in order to make critical analysis both on articles handed out by teacher as well as follow-up CDA based presentations. The results of the posttest showed that CDA has a positive and significant impact on EFL learners’ critical thinking ability. Furthermore, the results revealed that CDA have the highest influence on two components of CT, interpretation and recognizing unstated assumption.
  • The Relationship between Time Perspectives and Communication Apprehension among Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : فرزانه غفاری داراب
    سایر نویسندگان : فرزانه غفاری داراب سعید کتابی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    As it has been argued in interactional approaches in language teaching, learners’ active participation is crucial in order to learn a language however, learners’ individual differences exert an impact in the amount of participation and learning thus deeper understanding of these variables seems necessary. Recently, it was argued that the perception of time or partitioning experiences into different psychological time frames of past, present and future as a newly introduced individual difference variable can predict responses of an individual to daily choices. Additionally, it was reported to be linked to academic achievements, educational attainment and motivation. As a result, it was hypothesized that time perspective may also be related to learners’ communication apprehension in second language contexts therefore this article was designed to investigate the relationship between different time perspectives and learners’ communication anxiety. To conduct the study ZTPI (short version) and PRCA-24 questionnaires were given to 250 freshman students (115 males, 135 females, ranging from 17 to 22) at university of Isfahan to assess their time perspective and communication anxiety respectively. The data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24 to check descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that individuals’ perceptions about past, present, and future changes the ways learners approach or avoid communication. The results revealed that future time was significantly and negatively correlated with communication apprehension whereas, past-negative and present-fatalistic time were positively correlated with anxiety among participants. It was also found that future time was the strongest predicator of communication apprehension. Moreover, results of regression analysis showed that past-negative and present-fatalistic predicted anxiety among Iranian EFL learners significantly. Results are beneficial to improve learners’ communicative behavior by affecting their apprehension in communicative contexts through interventions based on different time perspectives. Teachers can raise learners’ awareness of personal goals, and the associations between the immediate goals and future attainments and encourage them to gain positive feelings, and be less anxious to perform better.
  • The Effect of using Nursery Rhyme on female and male learners English vocabulary knowledge

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : نصيبه خيري يگانه اذر
    سایر نویسندگان : نویستده اول : نصیبه خیری یگانه آذر نویسنده دوم : دکتر سیدحسین کاشف
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Vocabulary is one of the most critical elements in language learning without which communication is not possible. Therefore, it is important to adopt an effective method for teaching it. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using nursery rhymes on male and female learners’ English vocabulary knowledge. Thus, it was hypothesized that gender has a moderating role in the effect of nursery rhymes on learners’ vocabulary knowledge. The participants in this study were 40 EFL learners who were chosen non-randomly from learners in Andishe Sabze Ehsan Language Institute in Urmia, Iran. They were divided into two groups, the first group was control group (N=21), the second one was experimental group and treated by nursery rhyme (N=19) and both groups included male and female learners. All participants in two groups participated in the pre-test to be determined whether they were homogeneous regarding their vocabulary knowledge. After ensuring the homogeneity of groups, the researcher instructed both groups. Both groups of the study were taught two sessions a week for nine weeks. In order to test the research hypotheses, independent t test was used to measure the differences between participants in nursery rhyme. The obtained results of the Independent t test (t=-0.17, df= 38, p =0. 85 > 0.05) showed that the gender of learners has not any significant influence on learners’ vocabulary knowledge. The findings of the current study may have some useful implications for language teachers and syllabus designers to include a variety of audiovisual with the aim of improving vocabulary learning in kids’ classes.
  • The role of songs in expanding vocabulary of the EFL students

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : فرانک خاتمی فر
    سایر نویسندگان : 1. Faranak Khatamifar, MA. 2.Dr. Hossein Sabouri
  • چکیده مقاله:
    THE ROLE OF SONGS IN EXPANDING VOCBULARY OF THE EFL STUDENTS Abstract Different methods have been used and diverse theories have been applied to assist EFL students through the English language learning process. One of the approaches, nowadays, considered and applied prevalently, is to teach English through literature. In this manner, literary materials in form of varied genres i.e. novels, short stories, poems, plays, songs, … are used to help students out , English acquisition, considering different language skills( i.e. Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing) and different language areas( i.e. vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation) in Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced level in students of all ages .The aim of this article is to show the relationship between songs and teaching by disclosing the role of using songs for transmitting a wide range of vocabulary to the students and efficacy of songs in expanding vocabulary of the EFL STUDENTS. Keywords: English literature, English language teaching, EFL students, vocabulary, songs
  • Exploring the Links between Evoked Attitude and Conceptual Metaphors in Prose Fiction Text Yaser Hadidi (PhD) Assistant Professor University of Tabriz Email: hadidiy@tabrizu.ac.ir Abstract: Appraisal/Evaluation is an offshoot of Systemic Functional Linguistics that builds upon the Interpersonal lay

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Yaser Hadidi
    سایر نویسندگان : Yaser Hadidi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract: Appraisal/Evaluation is an offshoot of Systemic Functional Linguistics that builds upon the Interpersonal layer of meaning-making of the theory, extending it to a considerable extent and making it even more available and operationally useful for text and discourse analysis. This study is an attempt to explore the occurrence of Conceptual Metaphor in a work of English prose fiction and see what Attitudinal choices these metaphors accompany. The goal is to see if one of the textual devices for realizing Evoked Attitude is, indeed, Metaphor, as raised in the literature, and if Conceptual Metaphor is actually one major means of realizing Evoked Attitude, as claimed previously by the author himself. Upon analysis of an established work of modern fiction, Frankenstein, it turns out that the claim made in the literature about the links between Evoked Attitude and Metaphor is supported by the findings of this study for the most part, with Conceptual Metaphor playing a major role in realizing Attitude in indirect (evoked) ways, and such choices in text appearing to be aligned with the literary elements of the novel, as required by any research in the realm of Linguistic Stylistics. There are a great many implications for TEFL, especially for advanced learners and learning, accruing to this study and its like, as there have been with studies of Attitude before, but the links between metaphor and evaluative language in different genres and texts, including the literary ones, have not received due research attention, despite being potentially interesting grounds for it and affording interesting insights into the stylistics of literary fiction and further discursive/semantic enlightenment of such text.
  • Genre-based or Genre-interfered Societal Signs in Iran

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Ehsan Narimani Vahedi
    سایر نویسندگان : Ehsan Narimani Vahedi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In heyday of going beyond genre different from the Swalesian approach involving just linguistic features, new rhetoric approach implies rather dynamic social purposes. Therefore, tactical aspects of specific genres, adopting different discriminative strategies and following some regularities in their structures, signal their membership and discourse community. So, this study was curious to determine the extent to which societal signs serve their purposes through specific conventions or they break the pattern of specific genres to imply some other purposes associated with different genre types. To this end, this study adopted Bhatia’s 7 steps, including situational context, surveying literature, speaker/hearer and reader/writer, history of discourse community, networks of texts, the use of genre, focal level, lexico-grammatical features, text-patterning, and structural analysis, for genre analysis in 80 traffic, 78 education, and 83 advertisement societal signs. Furthermore, 7 specialist informants were consulted to ensure the interpretation of the aforementioned issues in three 45-minute focus group discussion sessions. Results showed 64 percent of traffic signs as religiously, ethically and politically genre-interfered, 69 percent of education signs as religiously and politically genre-interfered and 38 percent as genre interference of congratulation in advertisement signs. At last, in order to endure the complexities of the modern world and provide a life-long instruction, teachers can expose content-based, subject-specific studies in ESP courses through genre training, consciousness-raising activities and translation-based tasks.
  • Writing Assessment Literacy: Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practice Among Persian EFL Practitioners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : حسین خضرلو
    سایر نویسندگان : Hossein Khezerlou; Ali Khodi; Seyed Hamed Etemadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    General perception concerning Language Assessment Literacy (LAL) has been created among different practitioners in diverse levels. The time is accordingly ripe to consider assessment literacy from more detailed aspects of language such as writing, which is now moving beyond a mere skill towards a vital aptitude in breaking the boundaries between academic disciplines. The study is a Persian adaptation of the investigation done in Europe by Crusan, Plakans, and Gebril (2016) titled Writing assessment literacy: Surveying second language teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practices. This study examines writing assessment literacy (WAL) in English classrooms in three classifications of newcomers, experienced, and highly experienced EFL practitioners. The focus of the study is on the significant components of LAL (beliefs, knowledge, practice) regarding writing assessment via a survey instrument. Similar to the European study, this study aims at answering the following questions: (1) How have Persian EFL Practitioners obtained assessment knowledge? (2) What do Persian EFL Practitioners believe about writing assessment? (3) What are the assessment practices of Persian EFL Practitioners? (4) What is the impact of linguistic background and teaching experience on writing assessment knowledge, beliefs, and practices? In addition, this study compares the finding of the current endeavor with the European investigation to observe the similarities and differences. It is also compares Persian EFL practitioners in three levels of proficiency to check the possible influences of their professional developments concerning WAL. The study is illuminating in depicting the current condition of WAL among Persian EFL practitioners in attempts to develop their future training courses. Also, the study would set the scene for teacher/master trainers to embed the proper assessment knowledge in their courses with regard to the level of proficiency among curse and workshop participants.
  • Practicum in Practice: Assessing ELT Student-Teachers of Farhangian University Prior to Certification

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : monireh norouzi
    سایر نویسندگان : دکتر غلامرضا کیانی منیره نوروزی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In the current era of accountability, preservice teacher assessment, and in particular, performance-based assessment is considered virtually indispensable for any educational reform movement. Accordingly, Farhangian University has employed a performance assessment scheme as a benchmark for assessing the effectiveness of practicum courses in enhancing its accountability. To this end, 34 student-teachers took part in a performance assessment scheme which consisted of three tasks yielding 34 reflective commentaries, video clips, and learning activities; three raters were trained and to further improve the reliability of the assessment procedure a calibration process was used; Although the results indicated that practicum courses contribute significantly to the development of the professional competencies of student-teachers, the content analyses of the interviews conducted with stakeholders implied that for this newly introduced course to be fully effective, more cooperation is needed among teacher educators, Farhangian University, and the Ministry of Education.
  • Comparing the Effect of Mnemonic Key word Method (KWM) on English Development of Farsi_Speaking Cochlear Implanted (CI) Children and Normal Hearing (NH) Children

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : محمد کاربخش
    سایر نویسندگان : Karbakhsh, Mohamad Fakhr Shafaie, Nahid Rastegar, Mina
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract The present study aims at comparing KWM and rote rehearsal technique when applied to CI children. It also compares CI children and their NH counterparts when KWM is applied to them in order to see whether any significant difference occurs in their English development. Looking forward to catching up with their NH peers, CI individuals are provided with the opportunity to attend integrated classes in normal schools. However, there seem to be lack of particular teaching strategies to instruct CI children in integrated classes, especially in English classes. Thus, in order to contribute to the English acquisition of CI individuals in Iran, some special language-learning techniques are required. One appropriate strategy might be KWM which takes advantage of CI individual’s visual strength so that it could compensate for their cognitive disabilities or malfunctions. Hence, the author of this study held 2 English-teaching courses during and after which several teacher-made tests were conducted to eventually make the comparisons. The first one was held for CI coed children and the second for NH children. It is hoped this study will help CI Farsi_speaking individuals to develop their English and catch up with their NH peers.
  • How do Iranian EFL learners apologize in different contexts? An investigation of the role of gender and power relations

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : فرید اخلاقی
    سایر نویسندگان : Farid Akhlaghi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study aims at finding out the strategies Iranian EFL learners use to apologize. It also investigates the effect of gender and power relation on the choice of these strategies. For this purpose, 76 Iranian advanced EFL learners participated in completing a DCT of eight different situations and Olshtain and Cohen (1983) apology framework was used to analyze the data. The results yield some pertinent answers to the study questions: based on the finding of this study a cline can be drawn representing the most used versus the least used strategy by Iranian advanced EFL learners at two opposite poles between which there are other types of strategies. The results also indicate that males and females in Iran EFL context apply diverse strategies to apologize and that both gender and power relation can affect their choice of these strategies.
  • Theurgic Power of Shadowing on Speaking Fluency

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : وحید وظیفه
    سایر نویسندگان : Vahid Vazifeh Saeideh Ahangari (corresponding Author)
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The mastery of speaking as the most formidable skill is primordial to language learning process. The current study was mooted to introduce a revised technique called ‘Planned Shadowing’ i.e. intensive listening followed by simultaneous speaking to accelerate the act of speaking. This, undeniably serves an innovation to most ELT scholars. It is believed that the lack of exposure to sounds and structures of the target language and the dearth of language practice result in speaking deficiencies. On the other hand, many researchers seek for effective methods to accelerate the act of speaking for their students by dint of integrating modern techniques. Hence, this paper delves into a less explored area of shadowing research, the combination of Planning and Shadowing, called Planned Shadowing (PSH). To do so, Forty EFL learners were asked to imitate (shadow-like) particular recorded inputs (for fifteen sessions) extracted from the book the students were being taught during the course, adjacent to using the audio-scripts in source and target language (Persian and English) which were intertwined in a planned way with the topics the students were supposed to tackle during each unit. New expressions and vocabularies and grammatical difficulties were taught before taking the task of shadowing up. The part-takers were supposed to listen to the level-adapted audio tasks and try to shadow the audio files with the lowermost delay. The current work lent general support to the claim that Shadowing, when accompanied by pre-task planning, ameliorates fluency and its constancy leads into Learner Autonomy.
  • The Effect on Careful Online Planning on Accuracy and Complexity of EFL learners’ writing

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : احمد مجوزی
    سایر نویسندگان : Ahmad Mojavezi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Building on Kellogg’s (1996) model of writing and Kellogg’s (1990) Interaction and Overload Hypotheses, this study examined the effects of careful online planning on writing accuracy and complexity of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The effect of two planning conditions (i.e., pressured careful online planning and unpressured careful online planning) on learners’ writing were examined. To this end, sixty Iranian intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected and assigned to three groups. Measures of accuracy and complexity were used to evaluate the learners’ writing. The results obtained from a series of one way MANCOVAs indicated that unpressured careful online planning conditions significantly affects the students’ writing. Pedagogical implications of the study are discussed and suggestions for further studies are made.
  • The role of Iranian Intermediate EFL Students' Feedback on Teaching in Vocabulary Recall and Retention

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : سوگندالسادات دانشی
    سایر نویسندگان : Reza Nejati, Sogand Sadat Daneshi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The current study was an attempt to investigate the role of Iranian intermediate EFL students' feedback on teaching in vocabulary recall and retention. To this end, sixty Iranian female EFL learners at the intermediate level of English proficiency at Iran English Language Institute in Yasouj were chosen as the participants of the study on a random basis. Besides, thirty of the learners were randomly selected as the experimental group and the rest as the control group. In so doing, at the very beginning of the study Nation’s (2007) vocabulary test was administered to both groups so as to test the homogeneity of the participants. Both groups experienced eight sessions of treatment. At the end of each session, Marsh’s (1982) SEEQ (The Students Evaluation of Educational Quality) questionnaire was given to the experimental group to examine the null hypothesis. In order not to make any mistakes on the behalf of the learners, use was made of a Persian translated version of Marsh’s (1982) SEEQ questionnaire. After the treatment, the same vocabulary test was administered twice, i.e., a post-test and a delayed post-test with two weeks interval to examine the students' vocabulary recall and retention. To analyze the gathered data, statistical procedures; namely, descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, and a Repeated Measures ANOVA were applied. Finally, the results suggested that receiving students' feedback on teaching at the end of each session brings about a significantly positive effect on their vocabulary recall and retention. This study could have some beneficial implications for both EFL students to enlarge their repository of vocabulary knowledge, recall and retention, and teachers to become familiar with their students’ feedback while teaching English.
  • The Effect of Public vs. Private Feedback on Iranian EFL Students’ Face in English Writing Skills

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : زهرا کامجو
    سایر نویسندگان : Zahra Kamjoo
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study examined the effect of public versus private feedback on Iranian EFL students’ face in writing skill. This study also investigated the effect of these two types of feedback on the number of the students’ errors and their attitudes toward receiving feedback. Sixty Iranian EFL high school students in Larestan were chosen based on availability and ease of access. The participants were in two intact groups containing thirty learners as two experimental groups. The students in the first experimental group received public feedback and the students in the second one received private feedback. Students in each group received the same instruction in writing paragraphs. Collected data in this study consisted of number of students’ errors in English verbs in terms of tense and subject agreement as well as their responses to a Likert-type questionnaire administered after the treatment. The data gathered from both experimental groups were analyzed using SPSS software version 21. Data analysis revealed that both types of feedback had positive effects on the number of the students’ errors. However, public feedback had more positive effects than private feedback. The students’ responses to the questionnaire showed that private feedback had positive effects on the students’ face and they showed positive attitudes toward private feedback, whereas public feedback had negative effects on students’ face and their attitudes toward public feedback were negative. However, students’ motivation seems to be a key factor, accordingly, public feedback turned out to be more effective in reducing learners’ errors. Keywords: face theory, oral feedback, written feedback, English writing skill
  • Kleinian Psychoanalysis of Vladimir Nabokov's

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : نسیم خطیبی
    سایر نویسندگان : نسیم خطیبی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract In Defense the main issue is game and phantasies, respectively. These two objects are dealt with to discover the profound insights of the main protagonist. Defense is the story of chess genius. This novel represents Luzhin's defense mechanism against his childhood offensive atmosphere in the form of play and his final suicide. Melanie Klein's Object Relation Theory is applied on this Nabokov's novel. The aims of the current study are to analyze the Luzhin's defense mechanism concerning Klein's definition of internal and external objects, binary splitting, projection, introjections, depressive position, paranoid-schizoid position; in addition, to analyze Ganin's complexities according to Kleinian terms of love, guilt, and reparation. Keywords: Object Relation, Internal and External Objects, Binary Splitting, Projection, Introjections, Depressive Position, Paranoid-Schizoid Position, Love, Guilt, and Reparation
  • The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Achievement Goals, Emotional Intelligence, and Their Achievement Emotions

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : سیده مهسا امینی
    سایر نویسندگان : Seyyedeh-Mahsa Amini Rasoul Salehi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Emotions in education play significant roles in the academic performance and achievement of students. Emotions, as the inputs to students’ goal system, are related to their learning activities, performance, and achievement. Academic emotions, as part of everyday school life, are directly tied to achievement goals (Pekrun, 2000). Identifying students’ current goals is a matter of paramount importance in gaining a clear and great understanding of students' emotions. In this respect, this research makes an effort to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ achievement goals and emotional intelligence and their achievement emotions. In view of that, 249 female IELTS learners from six English language institutes in the northwest part of Iran, as participants of the study, filled out the Achievement Goal Questionnaire, the Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised. All the participants were M.S. holders who majored in subjects related to engineering such as Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Computer information Engineering. The collected data were then submitted to the correlational data analyses that indicated a significant relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ achievement goals and their achievement emotions, and between their emotional intelligence and achievement emotions. Therefore, the results of the study imply that emotions can play noteworthy roles in the educational life and academic achievement of students. Thus, it is most likely to be concluded that setting achievement goals is as important as being an emotionally intelligent learner. This ultimately results in experiencing positive achievement emotions. The findings of the present research may have some implications for further studies in educational psychology and language education.
  • A Study of the Relationship between Critical Thinking and Subscales of Emotional Intelligence in Predicting Iranian EFL Teachers’ Professional Success

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سیده مهسا امینی
    سایر نویسندگان : Moussa Ahmadian, Seyyedeh-Mahsa Amini , and Leila Bahrami
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The effect of teachers on the teaching and learning processes and on their students’ educational life is crucial. Teachers’ emotional intelligence, as the ability to tackle emotions, feelings, and affects, can help them to bring about their academic performance and professional development. In addition, critical thinking as one of the facets of professional quality of teachers seems to be crucial for EFL teachers to perform well in evaluating and using information. Critical thinking is the link between cognition and emotions in the emotionally intelligent person. Thus, investigation of emotional intelligence can also include critical thinking (Elder, 1997). This study examined possible associations between critical thinking ability and subscales of emotional intelligence in predicting Iranian EFL teachers’ professional success. The participants included 50 male and female Iranian EFL teachers from two English language institutes in Isfahan and Zanjan, Iran, together with 602 students who completed the Successful Iranian EFL Teacher Questionnaire (SIETQ). The research instruments included the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Assessment (WGCTA), the Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and the Successful Iranian EFL Teacher Questionnaire (SIETQ). The results of multiple regression analyses revealed that Iranian EFL teachers’ managing emotion, which is a subscale of emotional intelligence, is a stronger predictor of their professional success, with critical thinking standing at the second place. The findings of the present study may have some implications for teacher trainers and teacher training programs to explore curriculum designs and alternative teaching practices that incorporate critical thinking and emotional intelligence into the curriculum of teacher education.
  • The Relationship between Writing Self-Efficacy and Writing Strategies of Iranian EFL Learners across Different Language Proficiency Levels

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مریم شهرکی نسب
    سایر نویسندگان : Maryam Shahraki Nasab
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The topic of self-efficacy has received great attention in recent decades. There have been many studies comparing writing self-efficacy with other variables. However, the issue of writing self-efficacy has been overlooked in the Iranian context. Thus, in the present research, there was an investigation of the relationship between writing self-efficacy and writing strategies across various proficiency levels of English among EFL learners. On the other hand, research into the use of strategies by Iranian learners in their English language writing is limited. There appear to be few studies on writing strategies featuring Iranian participants. To this end, 90 EFL learners at the level of B.A and M.A. from Zahedan's Azad and State Universities participated in this study. The data were obtained through Oxford Placement Test (OPT), Writing Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and Writing Strategies Questionnaire. The results of the study suggest that the three levels of students have a degree of self-efficacy and the relationship between their sense of self-efficacy and their use of writing strategies was significant. So the students with a self-efficacy significantly lower than their ability are unlikely to flourish and develop their skills.
  • Social Networks and Language Learning: Technology-based or Multi-Synchronous Language Environments

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : Morteza Mellati
    سایر نویسندگان : Morteza Mellati Tehran University, Tehran, Iran mellati.morteza@ut.ac.ir Marzieh Khademi Baqir al-Olum University, Qom, Iran marzieh.khademi2834@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Palmtop electronic devices such as Smartphones create innovative and omnipresent language contexts. Development of mobile systems and Internet access has been made feasible more sophisticated applications which allow the use of world wide databases and interactive web content. The current study investigated the impacts of creative interaction in social networks on EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge in Online Mobile Language Learning (OMLL) course. The results of the study discussed the ways which new technologies established authentic and effective interaction between human and computer in learning contexts as well as challenges that developing countries have in conducting OMLL courses.
  • Shahraam Rahimian’s Dr. Noon Loves His Wife More Than Mussadiq: Living in the Imagined Community of Iran

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : الهام ارسلانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Elham Arsalani MA Student of English Literature, University of Kurdistan arsalani.elham@yahoo.com Sadegh Maaleki MA Student of English Literature, University of Kurdistan s.maaleki69@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study aims in critically investigating Shahraam Rahimian’s Dr. Noon Loves His Wife More Than Mussadiq from the standpoint of Benedict Anderson’s theory of imagined communities. Anderson conceives the nation as a political community that is characteristically an imagined and limited entity under a sovereign state. Considering this, the researchers attempt to demonstrate nation, depicted in the novel, as a construct, built culturally and historically. Furthermore, they will propose that the formation of such a construct owes much to the configuration of a shared national identity which is largely abstract and theoretical. The researchers, therefore, minutely delineate the processes through which Iranian imagined community is effected.
  • ESP for Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Program: A Case Study of Syllabus Design as Part of the Curriculum of Iranian Universities

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : نگین امیری کار
    سایر نویسندگان : Negin Amirikar1, Yasin Niktabar2
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Investigating the curriculums of Iranian universities in the field of chemical engineering as well as the availability of consistent standard course books to fulfill the objectives in educating the command of specialized English ,as an indispensable requirement for qualified engineers, to undergraduate students necessitates designing of comprehensive course books that comply with the ESP or CLIL teaching methods and setting definite objectives to be accomplished by the students at the end of the semester. This article is an account of the first phase of an exhaustive project ran by the private sector with the aim of publishing comprehensive course books to be credited and taught as references in Iranian universities. First, the significance of ESP for the Iranian chemical engineering students and different aspects to it is discussed. Then, the drawbacks and deficiencies in teaching ESP to the undergraduate students are investigated and identified. Next, according to the qualifications and competence requirements in chemical engineering, the overall objectives are set. Finally, based on the findings as well as the materials and the subjects comprising the curriculum, a comprehensive syllabus is designed and introduced.
  • Do Classroom Assessment Practices Differ for Iranian EFL Teachers across Gender Levels, Teaching Experience, and Academic Degree?

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Ebrahim Mohammadkhah محمدخواه
    سایر نویسندگان : دکتر رضا عنانی سراب هیت علمی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی ابراهیم محمدخواه دانشجوی دکتری تربیت مدرس تهران نویسنده مسول
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study investigated instructional assessment practices (IAP) of Senior high school English teachers in Bukan, West Azerbijan, Iran. As such, the researcher sought to examine whether there were any statistically significant differences in the IAP of teachers based on gender and teacher quality (teaching experience, academic qualification). As such, a sample of 55 English teachers from fourteen senior high schools in Bukan was randomly selected to participate in this study. Survey through self-report questionnaires was the main data collection channel, and the data, subsequently, were analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the IAP scores. The results indicated that the overall IAP of teachers were favorable educationally based on the categorization of data, yet a few respondents' IAPs were considered moderate. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the teachers’ reported IAP based on gender ( t=0.1; df=5; p=0.92), teaching experience ( F[3,50]=1.766; p=0.140), or the level of academic qualification (F[2,51]=0.504; p= 0.616). Following up on data analysis, the researcher found that teacher gender, teaching experience, or teacher academic qualifications were not much of significant predictors of IAPs.
  • “DISSIDENCE THROUGH DESIRING ABJJECTION IN OTHELLO”

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : توحید تیموری
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Teymouri and Maria Farnam
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Key words: dissidence, abjection, self, other, Moor, Othello, Kristeva, Sinfield
  • Subversion of Social Class in George Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : توحید تیموری
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Teymouri and Shahriar Valipour
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study tries to shed light on the aspect of social status created by language and how it marks subversion and containment in particular social class. An example of such social interaction is represented in George Bernard Shaw`s Pygmalion. This paper attempts to look at the play through the theory of “subversion-and-containment” introduced by Stephen Greenblatt. Greenblatt argues that a system tries to control and contain its subjects through generating subversive activities that provide containment of particular group of people. The present study attempts to apply Greenblatt’s theory to social classes rather than its original colonial aspect of his account, and tries to examine how language plays a crucial role in subversion and containment in Pygmalion. It comes to prove that high class Professor Higgins uses the language as a device for containing Eliza Doolittle from lower classes of society.
  • An Overview of the Impacts of Beliefs, Self-efficacy, and Technology in Philosophy of Teaching among the Iranian EFL Teachers

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : محمد جواد انصاری
    سایر نویسندگان : Mohammad Javad Ansari Gholam Reza Zarei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The paper aimed to study the roles of the beliefs, self-efficacy, and technology dominated in the language settings on philosophy of teaching dominated among the EFL teachers. These three factors contribute in shaping the philosophy of education; beliefs are derived from the attitudes and this point affects the self-efficacy and using the technology. For this purpose, forty Iranian EFL teachers were selected and quantitative method was applied by means of a questionnaire (5-Likert Scale with 25 items). The participants had enough experience in teaching English in the Ministry of Education and all were experts in EFL. After gathering the data, the analyzing of the responses showed that there was a direct relationship among the belief, self-efficacy, and technology. The results manifested that philosophy of teaching is affected not only at the micro-level but at the macro-level such as the policy-making and the economic status.
  • An Overview of the Impacts of Beliefs, Self-efficacy, and Technology in Philosophy of Teaching among the Iranian EFL Teachers

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : محمد جواد انصاری
    سایر نویسندگان : Mohammad Javad Ansari Gholam Reza Zarei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The paper aimed to study the roles of the beliefs, self-efficacy, and technology dominated in the language settings on philosophy of teaching dominated among the EFL teachers. These three factors contribute in shaping the philosophy of education; beliefs are derived from the attitudes and this point affects the self-efficacy and using the technology. For this purpose, forty Iranian EFL teachers were selected and quantitative method was applied by means of a questionnaire (5-Likert Scale with 25 items). The participants had enough experience in teaching English in the Ministry of Education and all were experts in EFL. After gathering the data, the analyzing of the responses showed that there was a direct relationship among the belief, self-efficacy, and technology. The results manifested that philosophy of teaching is affected not only at the micro-level but at the macro-level such as the policy-making and the economic status.
  • The effect of flipped classroom model on EFL learners’ reading comprehension

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : محمود صفری
    سایر نویسندگان : محمود صفری و زهرا جعفری
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present quasi-experimental study investigated the effectiveness of Flipped Learning Model (FLM) on the improvement of reading ability of Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. To this end, after administering the Oxford Placement Test (2007) as the proficiency measure among 90 pre-intermediate students who were studying at Saadatabad Bilingual Institute of Tehran, 60 students were selected based on their scores on the test. The participants were all female and their age range was 12-13. Those who scored one standard deviation above and below the mean were selected. The participants were categorized into two groups: an experimental and a control group. The researcher randomly assigned 30 of the participants to the control group and the other 30 to the experimental group. The experimental and control groups participated in a reading pre-test (the reading section of PET, 2004) and the independent samples t-test analysis of the two groups’ scores revealed no significant difference between them. The conventional method of communicative language teaching (CLT) was employed in both groups but the experimental group received the FLM as the treatment prior to the class. At the end of the semester (after 16 sessions) both groups took part in the post-test of the study. The collected data from the post-test were submitted to statistical analysis (SPSS, version 16). The researcher used t-test technique to detect any significant differences between the post-test scores of the two groups. The results showed a statistically significant difference between those who were taught reading skill by FLM and the conventional reading skill (CLT). In other words, the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group. This showed that the instruction they received was significantly more effective than the instruction that the control group received. The findings of the study will be useful for teachers, learners, materials developers and interested researchers.
  • The effect of mobile social networking on Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners’ writing

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : محمود صفری
    سایر نویسندگان : محمود صفری و نسیم بازونده
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Today, the use of mobile technology has created a new form of learning called Mobile Learning (M-Learning), or Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL). Mobile social networking is an online social networking service, where individuals with similar interests converse and connect with one another through their mobile phones and/or tablets for publishing, sharing and discussing information. The present study employed a pre-test, intact group, post-test design with one experimental and one control group. Sixty homogeneous participants were assigned to a control and an experimental group (N=30). The study lasted for 20 sessions, participants in both groups receiving instructions in 18 sessions (twice a week, in a 9-week period). Each session lasted ninety minutes: sixty minutes for teaching the textbook and thirty minutes for instruction on writing. The instructions were selected from the book Family and Friends 6. The experimental group also received the mobile social networking (Telegram) treatment, as out-of-class activity, four times a week. To analyze the quantitative data collected after administering the pre-test and post-test, an independent samples t-test was conducted. The results demonstrated that learners using Telegram outperformed their counterparts, who received conventional and traditional technique in terms of writing performance. Telegram had superiority over the traditional technique on promoting English language learner’s writing ability. Conducting Telegram-based tasks can be beneficial for foreign language learners, foreign language teachers as well as curriculum and syllabus designers in different ways. Regarding the advantages of mobile social networking in relation to the rate of student participations, interaction, and communication, the findings of this study might be beneficial to EFL learners and teachers.
  • The effect of explicit and implicit instruction on the use of appropriate English speech acts

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : محمود صفری
    سایر نویسندگان : محمود صفری
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study attempted to investigate and compare the effect of explicit and implicit teaching on the appropriate use of English speech acts by Iranian upper intermediate EFL learners. The participants were 40 EFL learners from two intact university classes. They were both male and female junior English majors at the 22-26 age range. Initially, a general proficiency test (TOEFL test, 2003) was administered among the participants to homogenize the groups. The analysis of the pre-test revealed that there was no significant difference between the two groups. The two groups were assigned to the control and experimental groups. Subsequently the participants took the pre-test, which included a multiple-choice discourse completing test (MDCT) and a written discourse completion test (WDCT). Then the participants of the groups were exposed to some English speech acts (complaint, suggestion, request, and apology) in a booklet of dialogues. The experimental group received explicit instruction on the speech act features after reading and listening to the dialogues while the control group only read and listened to the dialogues. Finally, they took the post-test, including a MDCT and a WDCT. The results indicated that the explicit group outperformed the control group on both the MDCT and WDCT post-test. Moreover, the comparison of the pre-test and post-tests results indicated that explicit teaching had a significant effect on the acquisition and use of appropriate speech acts, but implicit teaching did not. The pedagogical implications of the study will be discussed.
  • An Investigation into Using the First Language in EFL classrooms

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : صادق غفاری فارسانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Sadegh Ghafari Farsani Mehdi Pourbafrani Amir Darki
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Learning a second language in an EFL context requires both students and teachers to cooperate efficiently and resourcefully. By referring to the current theories of second language acquisition and reviewing the recent literature, it can be seen that the first language of learners (L1) has a necessary and facilitating role in all aspects of language instruction. This indicates that the bilingual approach is gaining more support by incorporating the students L1 as a learning tool and also as a facilitator for an efficient communication. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in English classrooms in Iran. This paper starts with the assumption that using the mother tongue when applied adequately and effectively, can be used as a means of language learning and language teaching. So the use of L1, if used properly and judiciously, is a needful, and worthy, pedagogical ally in the teaching and learning of English as language. Therefore, those who believe that L1 has a minimal role to play in the teaching of a foreign language are invited to think again of its role and contributions it makes to the fields of language learning and teaching. The findings also indicated that using L1 facilitates students’ learning in EFL classrooms.
  • Spectral Project of Modernity in Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance in Light of Trauma Criticism

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : سپیدہ اسدی
    سایر نویسندگان : Sepideh Asadi and Naser Dasht Payma.PHD Azad University of Tabriz branch
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This paper presents the unfinished project of modernity and its spectral trace in Edwards Albee's A Delicate Balance in light of trauma criticism to exhibit the ungoing trauma which exists in the drama. A Delicate Balance explores the confusion that erupts in a modern family's effort to avoid pain and imbalance. Characters in A Delicate Balance find the pain of this reality too much to bear, and they return into the fragile protection of the delicate balance of their lives, even though they now realize that its forms and rules are empty. Denial of emotions, loss of opportunities and regret over paths not taken as mirrored in the lives of a very well-to-do suburban couple who have retired but find their long-sought freedom about to decay. Their home comes under attack by emotionally wounded family members and friends, who ,in the end, expose the couple's own emotional insecurities. The characters in A Delicate Balance must face reality of their lives. A Delicate Balance has been credited with creating an archetype for American drama with its classic study of the American family, albeit a quite dysfunctional one. According to Diaspora criticism, modernity of America was due to suffering of blacks and it was shaped wholly by these people, but American society fails to accept this reality and eventually, leads to failure of American Dream's ideals and Albee tries to exhibit this failure in the lives of that period. In this play, Albee depicts the disintegration of American nuclear family and the state of domestic affairs and sense of identity is clear in the characters
  • The Impact of Online Corpora on Iranian M.A Students in Literary Translation Quality

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سوگند پورمولایی
    سایر نویسندگان : Farzaneh Haratyan, Ph.D.& Sogand Pourmolaie MA
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The quality of translation especially literary translation is a significant aspect in conveying the accurate message of a source text to a target text. Therefore, training translators in an academic level according to an efficient method can be useful. This study showed whether applying a self-made website (online corpus) affected the literary translation quality in M.A students or not. The focused website includes various related data concerning language, translation, teaching, literature, poems and stories and their different translation, different dictionaries and encyclopedia free of charge. For the purpose of the study, the researcher used experimental (pretest, posttest) methods. The participants of the study were 60 students from Islamic Azad University in translation studies and literature who were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group received online corpus as a treatment during the classroom sessions, while the control group was taught the traditional method of translation training. To accomplish the purpose of the study, an independent samples T-Test between the posttest scores of experimental and control group and A One-Way ANCOVA was held. Finally the quality of literary translation was assessed based on the method A by Waddington. The findings of this study contribute greatly not only to translation training in academic level but they also enhance the quality of literary translation
  • The Relationship between Global, Situational, Task Self-esteem and Writing Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : علی باستانفر
    سایر نویسندگان : علی باستانفر سارا پری
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study aims at investigating the relationship between global, situational, task self-esteem and writing performance of Iranian EFL learners. The data was collected through administering a PET, three questionnaires of self-esteem including global, situational, task self-esteem sections and a writing performance test. The reliability and validity of the tests and questionnaires were examined through a pilot study. From among 110 EFL learners studying in four private English institutes in Boukan 60 intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their scores on PET for the main study. Pearson correlation was run to examine inter- rater reliability of the scores given by the two raters in writing performance test. The results of the three Pearson coefficient correlation tests performed on the results of the three questionnaires and writing test showed significant correlation between these variables. The association between “self-competence” and “writing score” (PC= .57) as well as the association between “self-liking” and “writing score” (PC= .71) were fairly strong (P<.05). The results showed a significant relationship between the two dimensions of the global self-esteem and writing performance (PC=58). Positive correlation was found between situational self-esteem and writing performance, (PC= .76, p< .05). Likewise, positive correlation was found between task self-esteem and writing performance (PC=.86, p<.05). Results of the study revealed that the level of the student’s writing ability was poor in general, and it should be given a serious consideration and remedy.
  • The effect of summary writing as a critical reading strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian female college students

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : خداوردی علیزاده
    سایر نویسندگان : Khodaverdi Alizadeh Staff member of the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Ahar Branch khodaverdializadeh@gmail.com Roghayyeh Tirandaz-e-Heravi MA student of the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Ahar Branch roghayyehalizadeh@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study was done to study the effect of summary writing as a critical reading strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian female college students. A convenient sample of female students (n = 53) in Ardebil University was selected for the study. The sample was divided into two experimental and control groups. Before the beginning session of the intervention, the test of reading comprehension was administered to determine the participants, reading proficiency in both experimental and control groups. During the term, a control group acted in normal procedure of general English course and the experimental group received a summary writing tasks this course courses. At the end of the semester, the test of reading comprehension was administered to both groups to measure their reading proficiency after the treatment. Independent sample t-test was applied to compare the results of the group. The findings indicated that summary writing had positive effect on reading comprehension. Findings of the study are useful for university instructors, students, and EFL learners who are involved in learning English.
  • The Differential Effect of Brainstorming and Summary Telling on Learning Idioms by Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : فریبا تیزفهم قوی روشتی
    سایر نویسندگان : Fariba Tizfahm
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study investigated the differential effect of Summary Telling and Brainstorming on Iranian EFL Learners Idiom Learning. There were two groups of sixty students of post elementary learners studying English at Shahre Zaban Language Institute, ranging from thirteen to nineteen. To provide homogeneity all students participated in KET (Key English Test), and then students were assigned to two experimental groups of Summary Telling and Brainstorming .students participated in pretest and posttests which were piloted before. The Paired sample t- test was calculated and according to the results, the effectiveness of the treatment was significant. The results of the paired-samples t-test, (p ≥ 0.05) Study revealed that Brainstorming didn’t have significant effect on Idiom learning and independent t-test (p≤.05) indicated that students performed better in Summary telling group, so Summary telling has been more effective in Iranian EFL learners Idiom learning.
  • Exploring tolerance of ambiguity and pragmatic achievement of EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Mahshid Ghenaat
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr Meisam Ziafar , Mahshid Ghenaat
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study investigated tolerance of ambiguity(TA) and pragmatic achievement of EFL learners. the research was carried out with a group of 75 female and male intermediate and advanced students studying English at Golestan institute. This study examines whether any statistically difference existed between Iranian male and female learners’ in their ambiguity tolerance. A 35- item pragmatic test, 12- item routins test, 12- item implicature test and 12- item speech acts test were completed by the participants. The present study aimed to investigate the tolerane/intolerance of ambiguity of EFL learners. It also sought the relationship between ambiguity tolerance(TA) and pragmatic achievement of EFL learners. To do so, a version of pragmatic test was administered to measure the participants’ achievement in pragmatic. Then, second language tolerance of ambiguity scale was given to the learners. The pearson correlation of TA was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between overall pragmatic achievement of Iranian EFL learners and TA. Moreover, the effect of learners’ gender on TA was supported.
  • The Effects of Graphic Organizer Strategy on Improving Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : الناز شعاری
    سایر نویسندگان : Elnaz Shoari
  • چکیده مقاله:
    For many learners reading is definitely the most important language skill. It even becomes more challenging when it comes to EFL learners with their limited exposure to target language and insufficient opportunity to make use of target language in real situations. There is no doubt that Graphic Organizers are effective instructional tools of language teaching. Graphic Organizer is a visual and graphic display that represents information in a variety of ways. A graphic organizer demonstrates the relationships between facts, terms and ideas within learning task and makes incremental growth. Accordingly the current study aimed at investigating the effect of Graphic Organizer Strategy on Improving Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Sixty female learners participated in this quasi-experimental research which lasted for one academic semester. For the purposes of this study, 60 learners were divided into two groups. Before the treatment, both groups were administered a reading comprehension pretest. The experimental group (n=30) was taught reading comprehension through Graphic Organizers. However, the control group (n=30) received the traditional instruction of reading comprehension. At the end of the study a post-test was administered to both groups. The results of t-test indicated that Graphic Organizers had a considerably positive effect on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The positive effects of Graphic Organizers are due to their effectiveness in matching the mind and making reasonable links between concepts, and facilitating the process of meaningful learning.
  • A Study of L1 Interference and Collocation in The Writing Of Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : Mahshid Ghenaat
    سایر نویسندگان : Meisam ziafar PHD, Mahshid Ghenaat, MA Student
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Current study aimed to analyze and describe features of L1 interference in paragraph writing by 28 second-year English-minor students. Three levels of L1 interference, namely words, sentences and discourse, were analyzed from samples of the students’ paragraph writing in the final exam paper. The verb-noun (V-N) one was found to be particularly difficult to mater, and learners’ first language was also found to heavily influence their collocation production. Relevant correct collocation as feed back messages is suggested according to the translation equivalents between learners’ L1 and L2. The system makes use of a reference corpus to exclude the inappropriate V-N pairs and single out the proper collocation. Moreover, prepositional, lexical, and verb- noun determiners indicated features of L1 syntactic interference. In addition, levels of language style and Iranian cultural knowledge in written discourse presented features of L1 discourse interference. It is hoped that this assistant can facilitate EFL learner-writers’ collocation use and help them transfer this essential knowledge to their future writing.
  • The cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies and tactics Iranian EFL students use as English Language Learners.

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : سعیده اللهویردی پورفلاح
    سایر نویسندگان : Saeedeh Allahverdi purfallah
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study aimed to find the effects of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies and tactics in listening of Iranian EFL students use as English Language Learners. One hundred and four students at English Language Department at Urmia University were assigned as the experimental group. Student questionnaire, self reports, pretests and posttests to test listening skills and diaries of the learners were evaluated. In the research, three hypotheses were tested and the following results were found: The general cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies such as Inference, translation, were seen to be used by the learners. Pretest and posttest of the learners have shown that the concept of strategy can be taught. Another finding is that strategies and tactics are naturally human; the instruction can help to start them.
  • Demotivation Level of Male and Female EFL Language Institute Teachers in Iran

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : هادی صالحی
    سایر نویسندگان : Hadi Salehi and Najme Hojaji
  • چکیده مقاله:
    As the learning process demands teacher's creativity and effectiveness, the motivation in teaching can provide the greater value in learning process. Despite the importance of teacher's demotivation and many studies being done in the other countries, only a limited number of studies exist on teacher's demotivation in Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate demotivating factors among novice and experienced Iranian EFL language institute teachers in terms of gender. As the result, a mixed method including questionnaire and interview protocols were utilized. At first, a validated questionnaire was distributed among the language institute teachers in Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran. After collecting the questionnaires, teachers interviewed voluntary for the qualitative part of the study. After running the between-group ANOVA, this study did not find any significant differences between male English teachers in comparison with the female ones. Moreover, the result of the interviews showed that insufficient income, not getting involved in the process of making decisions, and principals’ inattention in appreciating their work were among the most crucial factors between novice and experienced teachers in terms of gender promoting teachers' demotivation in language institutes.
  • Impacts of Using Microsoft Word (MS) Software on Iranian EFL Lecturers’ Grammar Knowledge

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : هادی صالحی
    سایر نویسندگان : Hadi Salehi and Shabnam Khishtandar
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of using Microsoft Office Word on Iranian EFL lecturers’ grammar knowledge and their attitudes towards using them to support their grammar knowledge. To this end, 14 Iranian EFL lecturers, who had M.A. degrees in TEFL, containing eight males and six females participated in this study. The participants were randomly divided into equal groups of control and experimental. The participants in the experimental group worked with Microsoft Word and the participants in the control group worked with pens and papers during the study. The participants were asked to write a text about a specific subject and express their opinions about that subject. The results were collected and perused by the help of the supervisor of the study who had a Ph.D. degree in TEFL for checking the possible grammatical errors or mistakes. The results indicated that Microsoft Word was indeed beneficial to the grammar of the participants of experimental group because they got significantly higher grammar scores than the participants of the control group did. The results of this study offer practical implications for applying computer for language teaching and improvement of EFL learners’ writing skill.
  • The Effect of Using Etymological Elaboration (EE) on Learning Idioms Among Iranian Advanced Male and Female EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : آذر رضائی
    سایر نویسندگان : آذر رضائی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The figurative meanings of idiomatic expressions cannot be deciphered from their constituent parts. They present special problems for English as Foreign/Second Language (EFL/ESL) learners and teachers. So, in recent years, they have drawn different researchers’ attention to provide new and applicable ways of teaching and learning idioms. The current study investigated the effect of using Etymological Elaboration (EE) on learning idioms among Iranian advanced male and female EFL learners. A total of ninety four advanced participants, forty nine females and forty five males studying English in Jahad Daneshgahi Language Institute (JDLI) in Urmia, West Azarbayjan, Iran, ranging in age from fifteen to twenty four, participated in this research. All the participants were the researcher’s students and took part in their regular classes in the institute and were assigned into four groups including two experimental groups and two control groups. To provide homogeneity, the subjects in all groups took a test before conducting the treatment. As a pre-test, the learners were asked to answer questions about idioms in a multiple- choice test. This test was a research-made test. During the treatment, two groups (one female and one male) received etymological elaboration on idioms, along with their equivalents in Farsi; while the other groups, received just Farsi equivalents of the same idioms. At the end of the treatment, a post-test was administered to both experimental and control groups. The researcher used independent samples t-test, one- way and two- way ANCOVA to analyze the collected data. The data analysis demonstrated that the participants in experimental groups outperformed the control groups on the post-test. The findings of the study also revealed that E.E has been more influential than traditional way of learning idioms. However, based on the results, it was indicated that the male participants were better than female participants. This finding made it clear that applying EE has been effective in teaching idioms to Iranian EFL learners leading to significant differences between the two experimental groups.
  • Examining the Relationship between Motivation and Job Performance among EFL Teachers Working in Public and Private Language Schools

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : سعیده اللهویردی پورفلاح
    سایر نویسندگان : Saeedeh Allahverdi Purfallah/Solmaz Asem/ Alireza Bonyadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Motivation seems to be one of the most important aspects of human psychology. English institutes design motivation systems to encourage the teachers to perform in the most effective way. The key to create the efficient motivation system is an answer to the question what really motivates the teachers. Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world in genuinely determining educational success and performance. Thus, the present study intends to find out the relationship between EFL teachers’ motivation and their teaching performance working in public and private language schools. In so doing, a total of 152 male and female EFL teachers constituted the sample size. To collect the required data from among the participants of the present study, two questionnaires were employed, namely, Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist (1967) Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; Hackman and Oldham (1980) Motivating Potential Scores of Job. Findings of the study showed that there was a positive relationship between motivation and EFL teachers’ teaching performance in private school. Also, there was a positive and strong relationship between motivation and EFL teachers’ teaching performance in public school. In addition, it was found through the use of Mann-Whitney test showed that EFL teachers in private schools perform better when compared to the teachers in public schools
  • The Effect of Dogme Model in Teaching Reading in Iranian EFL Context

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : امین سبزیکار هوشمند
    سایر نویسندگان : Amin Sabzikar Houshmand Seyyed Hossein Kashef
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Dogme ELT is the name of a loose collective of teachers who challenged what they consider to be an over-reliance on materials, including published course books, in current language teaching. Dogme ELT is a very brand new glimpse of English language teaching which has not been tested/scheduled in Iranian EFL context. This view formed a new movement in language teaching to perform high effects in English classes by less materials. This study is trying to find out how teachers and students of English language in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) classes in Iranian EFL context can perceive this methodology/procedure and the possible differences regarding oral and written performance after implementing an experimental methodology. To this end, 30 intermediate students are randomly chosen from an institute in intact classes of 2 to 4 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 45 to 60 minutes per session. The participants will be divided into two groups receiving different instructions. First group will receive CLT approach with course book structures and all content would be delivered upon textbooks. But, second group will receive controversial procedure; the Dogme. During the treatment, the experimental group will receive non-course book authentic materials with controlled content index from CEFR. The results will be reported in accordance to students' perceptions about Dogme ELT as well as their performance after the implementation of the treatment.
  • Modal Auxiliaries as Stance Taking Devices in Linguistics Research Articles: A Functional Contrastive Analysis

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فاطمه معافيان
    سایر نویسندگان : First Author: Fatemeh Moafian, Ph.D. Candidate in Applied Linguistics English Department, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar Second Author: Amrollah Talati-Baghsiahi, Ph.D. Candidate in Applied Linguistics English Department, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar Third Author: Nahid Yarahmadzehi, Assistant Professor in Linguistics English Department, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The current paper is to report a study on modal auxiliaries as stance taking devices applied in English linguistics research articles by native and Persian non-native writers. The corpora were detected for the occurrences of modal auxiliaries both mechanically and functionally. That is, they were searched by the Acrobat Reader software to identify the markers and help the researchers to find the distribution of the modal auxiliary verbs. The texts were also scrutinized and analyzed functionally owing to the fact that auxiliaries are polysemous and multi-pragmatic. The results uncovered some similarities and differences between the two groups of writers. Both groups of writers used modal verbs in the epistemic functions more than their deontic ones. Moreover, they preferred hedging strategies to boosting ones. Native writers, however, used modal verbs far more frequently than nonnative ones. The proportion of modal verbs did not follow a similar pattern in the two groups of texts. The findings offered some implications for English language education system contributors including material developers, lecturers, teachers and researchers. The interpretations and implications of the study were discussed with respect to the obtained results.
  • The Refusal of Request Speech Act in Persian, English, and Balouchi Languages: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Linguistic Study

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فاطمه معافيان
    سایر نویسندگان : Fatemeh Moafian, Ph.D. Candidate in Applied Liguistics English Department, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, Iran Naji Yazdi, M.A. in Applied Linguistics Camosun College, Victoria B.C., Canada Abdulah Sarani, Associate Professor in Applied Linguistics English Department, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Ira
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The study aimed at investigating the realization of refusal of request speech act in the three languages of Persian, English, and Balouchi. To this purpose, 219 individuals (73 in each language) took part in the study and discourse completion task was employed to elicit the participants' refusals in six real-life situations. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed the existence of statistically significant differences among the three groups of speakers concerning both the total frequencies and the frequencies of direct, indirect, and adjuncts to refusals strategies. Some significant differences were also observed in the number of employed semantic formulas in the main categories (i.e., direct, indirect, and adjuncts to refusals categories) in the languages under investigation. Furthermore, with respect to social status, no statistically significant differences were detected either for total number of strategies or for the number of strategies in main categories in each language, except for the indirect strategies among Persian speakers. In Persian language, with the increase in the interlocutors' social status level, the increase in the number of indirect strategies was discerned. Likewise, the frequency differences of some semantic formulas in the main categories were found to be statistically significant with respect to the social status in each language.
  • The Portrait of Elizabeth I in Marlow's Tamburlaine

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : توحید تیموری
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Teymouri and Maryam Nazari
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract This study explores the dominant ideology of the Elizabethan age in the play Tamburlaine the Great by Christopher Marlow. It examines the textual patterning of the play and makes comparison between Tamburlaine and Elizabeth I to demonstrate how the play is a mirror of the age. For analysis, the study relies on the idea of "Circulation of Social Energies" by Stephen Greenblatt. He believes dominant social energy is encoded into artworks, since they visualize those energies internalized by people. In other words, he considers literary creations as cultural formations shaped by the circulation of social energy. The study specifies on similarities between Elizabeth I and Tamburlaine that represents the figure of Elizabeth I circulates in Tamburlaine. Through analyzing a text in context of its creation, this study indicates that social energy is reflected in the text.
  • Study the effect of teaching influential communication skill in improving educational involvement and classroom interactions of teacher-student throughout elementary period

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : وحید کریم آزاد مرجانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Maryam Sameri-Laya Delkhon Razmi-vahid karim azad marjani
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The purpose of study was to consider the effect of training effective ‎communication skill on educational engagement and classroom interactions of ‎teacher- student in the sixth grade students of primary school in Urumieh. The ‎statistical society consisted of all students of sixth grade in Urumieh. Among ‎them, 35 students were chosen using convenient sampling. They are participated in 2 ‎months program of training effective communication skill. The students were ‎tested two times, before and after study, using QTI questionnaire and ‎educational engagement questionnaire. The results were analyzed by SPSS, ‎version 22, and t-tests. Results show that training effective communication ‎skill had significant effect on behavioral and emotional dimensions of ‎educational engagement. This training was not able to change conceptual ‎dimension of educational engagement. Also, it became clear that training ‎effective communication skill led to increase in classroom interactions of ‎teacher-student.Results indicate that training effective communication skill is a ‎practical tool in promoting educational engagement and interactions of teacher-‎student. ‎
  • Sociocognitive Approach and Implications in Second Language Acquisition

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : Adel Ebrahimpourtaher
    سایر نویسندگان : Adel Ebrahimpourtaher-Saideh Eisaie
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract Many theories have been proposed over the years to explain developmental changes that people undergo over the course of their lives. These theories differ in the conceptions of human nature they adopt and in what they regard to be the basic causes and mechanisms of human motivation and behavior (Saville-Troike, 2006). One of the relevant theoretical underpinnings is certainly the socio-cognitive approach to the acquisition of second language. The approach raised its head in the SLA to seek the construction of a relationship between cognitive processes and the social context of use (Atkinson, 2002). The preset study is an attempt to review the theoretical bases of this approach and implications it can bring about in second language acquisition.
  • The Impact of Using Task-Based Language Teaching and Graphic Organizers on Iranian ESP Learners' Information Recall

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : سودا محمودزاده
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr. Farahnaz Reimani Nikou, Sevda Mahmoudzadeh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Recent trends in the study of written texts reflect an interest in interaction between readers and writers which was reflected in an upsurge of research in ESP reading comprehension searching for a variety of techniques. However, recalling information is an area as important as comprehension. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how two famous techniques in improving reading comprehension (Task-Based method of language teaching and graphic organizers) affect learners' information recall in ESP courses. To collect data for the present research 68 accounting students were selected as experimental and control groups based on Nelson proficiency test. Having administered pre-test and post-test, the data was analyzed through independent samples t-test and ANCOVA. The results indicated that unlike Task-Based learning class, the learners in graphic organizer group received higher scores in post-test; though both approaches proved to be effective in improving information recall.
  • Iranian EFL Teachers’ Views toward English Pronunciation Instruction

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : عباس پورحسین گیلاکجانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani & Fouzieh Sabzian
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Intelligible pronunciation is a vital element of communicative competence. Persons who have good pronunciation improve their language skills better than those who have bad pronunciation. Despite its significance for oral communication, pronunciation is ignored in many EFL contexts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Iranian EFL teachers’ views toward English pronunciation instruction. Fifty Iranian EFL teachers from the three Islamic Azad Universities of Guilan Province were voluntarily chosen for this study. A questionnaire consisted of 10 statements was developed with the help of English language teaching experts. The researchers distributed the questionnaire to the participants. The researchers gathered the data and then analyzed them through the use of statistical procedures like percentages. The results of this paper revealed that lack of time, confidence, motivation, resources, materials, and educational facilities stop teachers from teaching pronunciation. According to the obtained findings, it was indicated that if teachers wish to increase their efficiency in English pronunciation instruction, they should have enough time, motivation, appropriate teaching materials and resources, and specifically educational facilities such as computer technologies.
  • The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Students’ Engagement Level in an Iranian EFL context

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Sepideh Berenji
    سایر نویسندگان : Sepideh Berenji Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Mahnaz Saeidi Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Engaged learning is an integral part of the “Teach Less, Learn More” initiative. The particular teaching method which encompasses indicators of active engagement can be problem-based learning (PBL). This research study intended to implement Problem-Based learning as a possible solution for learners’ disengagement problem in EFL context. For this purpose, two intact groups of elementary undergraduate EFL junior students at Islamic Azad University, Osku Branch-Iran were selected. The number of students was about 40 in each group. These two groups were assigned into experimental group applying PBL method with a focus on using hard scaffolds and control group applying lecture-based teaching method. At the beginning of the study, PETALS Engagement Instrument (PEI) with eight scales of Pedagogy (P), Experience of Learning (E), Tone of Environment (T), Assessment (A), Learning Content (L), Affective Engagement (GA), Behavioral Engagement (GB) and Cognitive Engagement (GC) was used as a pretest in both experimental and control groups to specify their engagement level in class. After implementing different phases of PBL in experimental group and lecture based teaching in control group, at the end of the study, PEI was administered again as the posttest to measure the change in learners’ engagement level in both PBL and non-PBL classes. Statistical analysis indicated that there was a meaningful and significant difference between two groups; PBL group improved their engagement level to a high extent in class in comparison to lecture-based teaching group. Also, taking the components of engagement into account separately, it became clear that PBL learners were generally better than control group. The most important difference between two groups was related to cognitive engagement. In PBL group, cognitive engagement had been improved to a large extent and more than other components while in control group cognitive engagement had been improved to a very little extent and less than other components. Syllabus designers and teachers should pay special attention to this new method of teaching and apply it in teaching contexts if they want to bring about successful learners.
  • On Legitimizing the Stance of Activity Theory in SLA: The Case of the Relationship between Autonomous Learning and Activity Theory Based on Leontief’s Activity Perspective

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : مرضیه رضابیگی
    سایر نویسندگان : Marzieh Rezabeigi Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Branch Nima Shakouri Islamic Azad University, Roudbar Branch
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Activity theory has been originally proposed by Rubinshtein during the early 20th century, it was Leontief who some years later in (1930) expanded and introduced the main concept of activity theory in the field of language learning and teaching. This paper argues how one can use activity theory (AT) as a framework to make learners more autonomous in the area of language learning. Therefore, the present paper sets out to develop a relationship between activity theory and learner autonomy by using learning strategies as one of the means to increase learners autonomy. To this end, the paper traces the historical development of activity theory through Rubinshtein, Leontiev (1975/78; 1981), and Luria’s expansion of Vygotsky’s original understanding of object-oriented activity.
  • The application of Hedges and Boosters as metadiscourse markers across Personality traits and Gender

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : Shima Ahmadi Azad
    سایر نویسندگان : Shima Ahmadi Azad
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Gender and personality traits are two socially and psychologically constructed factors that influence many aspects of human behavior, like language use. Hedges and boosters are linguistic devices that soften and intensify the force of an utterance. This study aims to investigate the effect of gender and two key dimensions of personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) on the utilization of hedging and boosters by Iranian ELT major students in their personal writings. 113 ELT major students (62 males and 51 females), with assessed personality traits (by means of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, revised version) participated in this study. They were asked to write three letters to a friend during three weeks. The taxonomy of hedges provided by Salager-Meyer (1997) was employed for the analysis of the letters. The statistical analysis revealed that hedging devices were significantly more frequent among neurotic female writers, whereas, extravert male writers used the highest level of boosters. The findings may provide useful information about the projection of personality traits and gender on individuals’ language performance, and reveals psychological insights about using different kinds of metadiscourse markers.
  • Demonstration of eco-criticism and human relationships in D. H. Lawrence’s The Rainbow and Women in Love: A Comparative Studying

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : Tohid Shiri
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Shiri and Nasim Sobherakhshan
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Life and nature are similar concepts because nature is the study of how life acts and cooperates within the circle of existence. When we take the time to examine the beauty of the world around us, we are capable to see equals within our own lives. Writers with eco-concern give worrying explanations of degraded nature and the man’s developmental greed. The fast step of cultural, ecological and economic changes in the world provide creative feed for the literary enthusiasts, and their works lend themselves to eco-critical clarification. David Herbert Lawrence wants man to act with an open mind to reliably connect with nature and community and to experience the flow of the living earth, in and around him. The natural resources have to be left to exist in their natural state. This will become conceivable only if man realizes his promise to nature and humanity. It seems that Lawrence in his novels; Women in love and The Rainbow takes a particular interest in nature as a subject. This study will endeavor to show that Lawrence’s novels signify the ecological idea on the human relationships. The relationships in which one side dominate the other side.
  • The Effect of Decontextualized (Flash Cards) and Semi-contextualized (Visual Imagery) Vocabulary Teaching Techniques on Learners’ Vocabulary Retention across Gender

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : کژال عبدی
    سایر نویسندگان : کژال عبدی - دکتر مهدی سرخوش
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of decontextualized and semi- contextualized teaching techniques on learners’ vocabulary retention across gender. This study was conducted in two phases at the ILI, Urmia branch.In the first phase, the researcher selected 4 groups (two females and two males) of learners within the age range of 11-14.The homogeneity of the learners were approved by the ILI placement test. The study was started by administering pretest. Then, the focused words were taught through two techniques, decontextualized and semi-contextualized teaching techniques. After teaching the words using aforementioned techniques that lasted for four sessions, immediate posttest was administered. Two sessions later, delayed posttest was administered. The participants’ scores were analyzed statistically. The results of the tests indicate that semi-contextualized (visual imagery) vocabulary teaching technique is significantly more effective at both short run and long run for both male and female group than de-contextualized (flash card) vocabulary teaching technique. Moreover, in case of vocabulary retention across gender it is concluded that males performed better than females at the long run in the semi-contextualized group. Whereas, females performed better than males at the short run in the semi-contextualized group.In the second phase of the study,the researcher investigated the effect of de-contextualized and semi contextualized teaching techniques on learners’ vocabulary retention (abstract words). Before the treatment, by means of the ILI placement test in the beginning of the term, the researcher selected three intact basic- level classes including 20 learners in each.16 abstract words were selected. The words were selected in a way that could be presented in images. The participants were given pretest. After revealing the results of the pretest, a pool of 16 abstract words were chosen. For the treatment, each class was given a separate method of vocabulary instruction. For the first group, the instructor taught the words in decontextualized technique. This procedure took for two sessions (8 words each session).The second group, received the treatment in semi contextualized technique. The third group, received the treatment in a different way. The images were presented in slides one by one. Then, the words in L2 simultaneously with their equivalent L1 were presented in a slide. The whole procedure resumed for 2 weeks (i.e., 4 sessions on each group).Right after teaching the whole words in session two, immediate posttest was administered. Two sessions later, at the end of session four, delayed posttest was administered. The results of the second phase of the study revealed that the Both approach to teaching vocabulary is more effective than image and translation and image is more effective than translation approach.
  • Discursive Language Acquisition in Teaching English as an International Language through Linguistic Conceptualization

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : رضا نوزاد هروی
    سایر نویسندگان : Masoud Hassanzade,Reza Nozadheravi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract The paradigm of Linguistic Conceptualization has highly been broadened in the field of teaching English as an international language. Linguistic, as a discipline, started with a narrow domain of traditional grammar approach which presented a brief account of written language as the standard. However, over recent decades, discursive language teaching is on the fore due to the significant domination of the English language. To have the factors mentioned scrutinized in the process of the English Language Teaching, a qualitative research based on discourse analysis (CDA)- was conducted to reveal the indispensable role of the concept of language in comparison to the mere knowledge of the learning process. The outcome of the research was the elaboration of the discursive language acquisition which is lost in language learning process.
  • Orientalism: A Comparitive Study of Eastern Thoughts in the Works of Emily Dickenson and Sohrab Sepehri

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مرضیه نیکو
    سایر نویسندگان : مرضیه ریمنی نیکو- مهسا فضل آور- ندا اکبری
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Many religions and methods have risen from the Orient. Sufism and Buddhism are of the most important ones that have been practiced not only in the East but also in the West. They also had a significant effect on the literary world. Comparative literature is regarded as one of the important sub-categories of literary studies. Sohrab Sepehri and Emily Dickinson, as contemporary poets, have a great impact on the poetry of their own era.Since these two poets are affected by Buddhism and Sufism, their thoughts are not exclusively influenced by just one of them. In fact their poems are a fusion of these two frames of thoughts The emergence of the Eastern thoughts and religion in the works of these modernist poets makes us have more and extensive research on this issue. This paper aims to compare the influence of oriental mysticism on the works of Emily and Sohrab regarding nature, death, life, color, and suffering. Sohrab and Emily repeatedly used these notions in their poems showing their attitude toward life.
  • A Discourse Analysis of Iranian Female and Male EFL Learners' Request Strategies Use in Different Proficiency Levels

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فرناز مسبب عمران
    سایر نویسندگان : Supervisor Milad Ramazani, PhD. By Farnaz Mosabbeb Omran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    ABSTRACT Many researchers (Baradovi- Harlig, 1996; Bachman, 1990; Kasper, 2001; Holtgraves, 2007) have asserted that successful communication not only involves mastery of syntax, morphology, phonology and lexis, but also the ability to use suitable expressions in appropriate context. Accordingly, speech acts are considered as crucial parts of pragmatic competence which help learners to understand the other speakers' intended meaning of an utterance according to context and use language for different purposes such as suggesting, greeting, requesting, informing etc.(Holtgraves, 2007). Therefore, the current study tried to investigate the difference in the choice of request strategies by Iranian EFL learners and their preferred request strategy within various proficiency levels among male and female. To do so, 60 female and 57 male students within the age range of 15 and 22 in intermediate, upper-intermediate and advanced levels from Jahadeh-e-Daneshghahi Language Institute (JDLI) were selected. Later, Discourse Completion Task (DCT) was distributed among participants and their responses were coded according to the categories of request strategies presented by Hudson's et al. (1995). The findings of the study revealed that the most commonly used request strategy by Iranian EFL students was Request Head Act Strategies with the percentage of 68.8%. also it was shown that the most commonly used strategy by male and female students was Request Head Act Strategies. In addition, no statistically significant difference was observed between the use of strategies by male and female students. However, there was a significant difference between Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level and their choice of request strategies.
  • Technology in classroom: Flipping the classroom through teacher-made videos

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : soheila allahverdizadeh moradlou
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr. Elham Zrfsaz (correspondant author) English Department, Urmia branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran Soheila Allahverdizadeh-moradlou Islamic Azad University, Urmia branch, Urmia, Iran Email: s.allahverdi01@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    As a response to the call for technology enhanced, student-centered learning environments, the flipped classroom approach has received considerable attention in teaching and learning recently. In a flipped classroom, in-class activities replace typical class-lectures. Lectures are normally delivered over some other medium such as video on-demand or podcasts. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of flipped classroom on Iranian EFL learners’ grammar learning. The study also sought to identify university students’ perception of the flipped classroom instruction in an EFL grammar classroom. This quasi-experimental research compares the flipped classroom methods and the traditional lecture/homework structure and its effect on students’ achievement. The participants were 28 male and female Iranian who were undergraduate students of Translation studies at Islamic Azad University of Urmia. Initially, Students were divided into two groups. One experimental group which was treated with flipped classroom materials and control group which did not receive any treatment. Materials and instruments included video lectures, pre-test, post-test and a questionnaire. The students watched the class videos beforehand. To control student’s primary knowledge in each group Covariance Analysis was used. Based on the findings, the flipped classroom approach did not have statistically significant effect on learner’s achievement. However, according to the results of descriptive analysis from questionnaire, students have positive attitudes towards flipped classroom.
  • An analysis in the Translation of the key term' Young Magian'(moghbache) in egiht lines from Divan-e Hafez according to Neo-hermeneutic.

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : نادیا سعیدیانی سنندج
    سایر نویسندگان : Nadiya Saeediyani Sanandaj Supervisor: Professor Behrooz Azabdaftari “”
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This research attempted to answer a major question in the field of poems translation. The researcher in this paper investigated the effect of Neo-hermeneutic approach to the quality of translation in conveying the intended meaning of one of the key terms in Divan-e Hafez. The goal of this Critical Discourse Analysis based on APA style is to show that translation without considering interpretation is not enough. This study, inspired by Longman’s (1987) definition in Literary Approaches to ‘Biblical Criticism’ attempts to unravel complex viewpoints in the world of poems interpretation, especially with regard to the mysterious character ‘moghbache’ (the young Magian) that is used eight times throughout Divan-e Hafez.This model is quoted from Professor Tremper Longman III’ book, (1987) in considering this aspect of discourse one must take into account the writer’s purpose in writing as well as his cultural milieu, the setting of the writing, the genre, the figures of speech, the devices used and finally, the plot (Hanko1991). The results demonstrated that among the analyzed samples the covert meaning(Shaikh Sanan and Christian girl’s love story) is masterly hidden behind the overt meaning and to some extent is far away from its translation.
  • The Effect of Portfolio as Dynamic Assessment on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Performance and their Attitude Toward Writing

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : نسترن ایمانی
    سایر نویسندگان : نسترن ایمانی ; جناب آقای دکتر پیمان رضوانی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Writing skill as a major component of language learning has been the objective of extensive studies each of which has its own contribution to the field. Recently, there has been a shift from traditional product-oriented methods of teaching and assessment to process-oriented methods of teaching and assessment. Dynamic assessment as a new approach to second/foreign language learning, which was originated from Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, does not consider assessment separate from instruction. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of applying portfolio as dynamic assessment on writing performance of EFL learners as well as its effects on their attitude toward writing. The present study is a quasi-experimental research which used the pretest posttest design. A total of 40 female EFL students at the low intermediate level of English proficiency, studying in Farzanegan Language Institute in Urmia, Iran, was divided randomly into two groups of experimental group (n=20) and control one (n=20). In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistical analyses such as frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, as well as independent sample t-test were used for the analysis of the data and obtained information. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 16. The results of the study showed that there was a statistically significant difference, at the level of 0.05, between the means of the performance of the experimental and control groups on the writing performance and their attitude toward writing for the benefit of the experimental group. That is, the mean score of experimental group was significantly higher than the control group both in learners’ writing performance and their attitude toward writing. Hence, portfolio as dynamic assessment can effectively be implemented to improve the learners' writing performance and it can affect their attitude towards writing skill as well. Thus, ultimate result of the study indicated portfolio as dynamic assessment for more effective instruction and assessment paradigm for English language learning as compared to the traditional method of assessing.
  • Technology in Classroom: Using WebQuest in Teaching English

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : رضا اطهري فر
    سایر نویسندگان : Attharifar Reza. BA Student in Translation Studies, Islamic Azad University, Urmia,Iran Tarbiyat Shadi. MA Student in Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Urmia,Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    With the appearance of new theories in English learning, traditional teaching methods become extinct and new methods emerge. Most of these methods have inductive approach. One of these methods is search-based learning method. WebQuest is defined as an online tool by which learners can use from Internet and web pages. This paper aims to introduce WebQuest that is a new method of student-centered, inquiry-based which uses computer technology to engage and motivate students individually or collaboratively in exploring, analyzing and synthesizing data to construct a new understanding or meaning. WebQuest, as a student-centered activity, enhances and facilitates higher order cognitive skills, including analysis, synthesis, evaluation and judgment, critical thinking. They also cultivate students’ exploratory and problem solving mentality. The role of WebQuest is to prevent students from wondering off on their own searches. In other words, preventing them from using search engines can lead to students relying upon incomplete and bogus information. It seems that the concept of WebQuest is still less known in both general and higher education and particularly in teaching English in Iran. Introducing this method to the field of ELT can bring about a new insight and encourage students to learn more effectively, deeply and indelibly.
  • Iranian EFL Teachers’ Assessment Perceptions and Practices in Advanced Classrooms

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : حسین خضرلو
    سایر نویسندگان : Seyed Mohammad Alavi, Hossein Khezerlou
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The act of consolidating teaching, learning, and assessment has made it mandatory for English teachers to fulfill the role of instructors as well as assessors in classrooms if they have the intention to survive this new challenge. However, despite plenty of studies done focusing on learners and opportunities to enhance their potential for learning, the domain of teachers is not bounteous in this regard, and assiduous efforts are required to enrich the field as well. This fact can even become more critical when it comes to assessing advanced learners as they face great challenges in their real-life interactions in English. This study accordingly investigates the assessment perceptions and practices of Iranian EFL teachers at classrooms while teaching advanced levels. The participants of the study are institute teachers with at least two advanced classes in their weekly schedule. The study utilizes a questionnaire to survey the participants’ perception of advanced language proficiency along with their classroom practices. The participants are also divided into two groups of experienced and highly-experienced teachers to monitor whether years of teaching can be considered as a criterion to differentiate advanced level teachers based on their assessment perceptions and practices in classrooms. Understanding the current condition of advanced level teachers considering assessment can shed more light on teacher training programs especially when the target audience is experienced and highly experienced teachers. The study would also be fruitful when institute managers and supervisors intend to allocate advanced classrooms to teachers.
  • The Impact of Working Memory Capacity on Iranian EFL learners’ Listening Comprehension

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : نجيبه نظامي
    سایر نویسندگان : Najibeh Nezami; Ahmad Mojavezi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Working memory, the limited-capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over a period of seconds (Baddeley, 1986), has been a popular area of research for a number of years. This study examined the effect of working memory capacity on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. Sixty intermediate EFL learners in two institutions in Sistan and Baluchistan province were randomly recruited. The participants’ working memory capacity was measured by the Listening Span Test. In order to measure working memory capacity, the participants were asked to remember and write down the last word of each sentence and decide whether or not the sentence was acceptable. The students’ listening comprehension was measured by the TOFEL listening comprehension test. The data were analyzed using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent sample T-Test. Statistical Analyses showed that working memory capacity affects listening comprehension. The results revealed that those individuals with a higher working memory capacity had better listening comprehension. The results also indicated that there was no difference between male and female with regard to the effect of working memory capacity on listening comprehension. The results of the study and their pedagogical implications were discussed, and recommendations for further research were provided.
  • Occupational stress, burnout and job satisfaction in EFL high school teachers in Bushehr, Iran

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : مهدی رستمی
    سایر نویسندگان : Mehdi Rostami
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The study attempts to investigate the level of occupations stress, burnout syndrome and job satisfaction of EFL teachers in high schools in Bushehr, Iran. Participants of the study include 130 high school’s teachers (Male: 71, Female: 59) which their age ranged from 27 to 49. Their experience in teaching consisted of 4 years to 26 years. Using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (Maslach & Jackson, 1986) questionnaire to measure the level of burnout among high school teachers, 98 of the teachers were identified as burnout suffering teachers. Then, Job Satisfaction Survey – Global (Lamond and Spector, 1999) was conducted to investigate to what extent burnout teachers are satisfied with 9 dimensions of professional job satisfaction. To assess the level of stress among teachers from different aspect, Teachers’ Occupational Stress (Antoniou, Polychroni, & Vlachakis, 2006) was used. The results indicated that male teachers suffer from burnout in EFL high schools. Male and female teachers are not satisfied with payment-wage, promotion-opportunities and benefits-perks of the profession. The study also showed that there is a direct relationship between the stress level and incentives, supervision activity, work condition and professional experience in which female teachers experience higher levels of stress than male teachers. The study proposes implications for teachers and policy makers.
  • An Analysis of Iranian Learners’ Tolerance of Ambiguity in the EFL Classroom

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : الناز کوراوغلی
    سایر نویسندگان : Elnaz Koroghli.Dr Elham zarfsaz
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Language learning is a matter of having the ability to deal with unknown and even vague features of a new language, and the one who owns the ability of such adaptation and tolerance is predicted to become a successful language learner. Ambiguity tolerance as one of the important learning styles, which can impede or facilitate language learning, and use of language learning strategies, the investigation into possible relationships between degree of ambiguity tolerance, and utilization of different strategies is expected to provide fruitful results. Therefore, the present study sought to examine the ambiguity tolerance among Iranian EFL learners with respect to their gender and level of proficiency. Using one sample t-test and independent t-test, it was found that Iranian EFL University Students have a good tolerance of ambiguity. Also, it was found through the use of independent ttest that the gender of learners does not have any significant influence on tolerance of ambiguity. Ultimately, the ambiguity tolerance was found to increase by the increase of level of proficiency.
  • The Quest of “Name” and “Soul” in Walcott’s Omeros

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : HALEH ZARGARZADEH
    سایر نویسندگان : HALEH ZARGARZADEH
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This article examines Derek Walcott's Omeros (1990) to elucidate the ways in which this magnum opus renders the difficulties of “return to Africa” for New World inhabitants. As the Caribbean has witnessed the violence of displacement, deracination, and transplantation the quest for ancestral homeland and the attempt to recuperate the past may cripple the mind of the homecomers. This paralysis is scrutinized in Achille's katabatic nostos to Africa. In this journey, Walcott demonstrates the disillusionment and unhomeliness of Africa for the Achille-like African-Caribbean people in the New World. However, as Walcott contends, if due to the fractures of history Africa is lost for African-Caribbeans, Africanness can still be recuperated by reviving and preserving its cultural residues in the new land. Furthermore, through the figure of Achille and his revelatory journey, Walcott suggests that the New World inhabitants should value the prospects of the present- the here and now- rather than being lost in the hallucinations of the past.
  • The effect of extensive reading on reading comprehension ability of Iranian female EFL learners

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : زهرا محمدی
    سایر نویسندگان : Zahra Mohammadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Extensive reading involves reading texts to improve general reading skills. It can be compared with intensive reading which means reading in detail with specific learning aims and tasks. Many EFL learners have difficulty in making sense of texts they want to read and feel less confident about reading in English. In extensive reading programs, reading a large amount of texts is required in order to facilitate learning and to offer sufficient amount of comprehensible input. To investigate the effect of extensive reading on reading comprehension ability of Iranian female EFL learners, a short story is given weekly to a group of 40 EFL learners for 8 weeks. T-test is used to compare the results of experimental and control groups. T-test shows that different groups have different results. Accordingly, it is concluded that the extensive reading has a meaningful impact on reading comprehension ability.
  • Exotic image of the Abyssinian maid in Coleridge’s Kubla khan

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : عرفان رفیع الدین
    سایر نویسندگان : عرفان رفیع الدین
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study is aimed to examine the usage of the image of the ‘Abyssinian maid’ in ‘Kubla Khan’ by S.T. Coleridge. There have been some different views about the usage of this image in the past but it has not been looked upon through the historical and cultural aspect of that time. The study reveals that the reason behind using the image, was Abyssinia’s not being colonized throughout the history and the other meaning of the word ‘Maid’ which was common at that time, has made this image a reason for S.T. Coleridge to get inspired to remember the rest of his poem which he has forgot.
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Blurring the Strict Boundaries

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : مرضیه رضابیگی
    سایر نویسندگان : Marzieh Rezabeigi Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Branch Nima Shakouri Islamic Azad University, Roudbar Branch
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Motivation is a key factor in learning. It provides the impetus to initiate L2 learning and later the force to continue the long and often boring learning process (Dorniye , 2005).A distinction is usually made between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation . The purpose of this study is to suggest a kind of interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation which blur the strict boundaries between the two concepts. Social contextual conditions that support one’s feelings of competence, autonomy, and relatedness are the basis for one maintaining intrinsic motivation and becoming more self-determined with respect to extrinsic motivation. The facilitation of more self-determined learning requires classroom conditions that satisfies the three basic human needs—that is that support the basic needs to feel connected, effective, and agentic as one is exposed to new ideas and exercises new skills. This study argues for teachers’ attempt to give students more autonomy or control over their own learning by allowing them to make choices and use cooperative learning approaches. In addition, teachers should establish a supportive classroom environment with respect to goal structures, attributions, and external evaluation.
  • The Interaction of Working Memory Capacity and Engagement with Recasts on Different L2 Outcome Measures

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : لیلا محبی
    سایر نویسندگان : Javad Alipour Assistant professor, Shahrekord University Maryam Mohebi, M.A candidate, Shahrekord University
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study was an attempt to shed more light on the interaction of working memory, as an individual difference factor, with gains from recasts, as transpired on different outcome measures. We report on a conceptual replication of a study presented by Révész (2012) in order to investigate the idea whether learners provided with recasts do engage in different processes as a function of their working memory and if/how this engagement comes to bear on performance on different tasks. To that end, the researcher collected the data, using a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest design as in Révész (2012). Ninety homogenous learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were randomly assigned to a recast, a non-recast and a control group. In the recast group, recasts were provided to learners’ errors in the use of the past progressive construction. After and before the treatment, a Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT), a written production task and two oral communication tasks were administered. In addition, tests of PSTM along with a test of complex working memory were administered to a number of participants in each group. Engagement with recast was also measured through a coding method categorizing responses to the recasts and stimulated recalls. Results revealed that learners with a high phonological short term memory (PSTM) were more prone to recast-induced engagement on the oral task, whereas those enjoying more RS were considerably less so. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications in terms of transfer-appropriate processing, and propose that learner engagement be deemed more important in future interaction research.
  • The Effect of Task Complexity on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Ability

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : لاله رنجبر
    سایر نویسندگان : Laleh ranjbar, seyed dariush ahmadi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has gained considerable momentum over the past thirty years; in some countries like New Zealand and Vietnam, TBLT has even been propagated by the national government as the most favored approach to second and foreign language teaching ( Van den Branden, 2016). Based on the cognitive and interactive perspectives of task research, the cognition hypothesis states that requiring L2 learners to engage in tasks of increasing complexity along a resource-directing dimension promotes greater interaction and feedback and thus facilitates L2 development (Robinson, 2001a, 2003, 2005, 2007a). Meanwhile, it is worth mentioning that many studies have attempted to show the relationship between task complexity and L2 performance, but very little research has explored the role of task complexity on L2 learning in English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom contexts among Iranian EFL learners. The purpose of this thesis will be to examine the effects of task complexity on the occurrence of interaction-driven learning opportunities and L2 development of Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners in EFL task-based language classrooms.
  • Problems of Implementing CLT Method in Iran from EFL teachers' prespectives

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : اسماعیل بنی آدم
    سایر نویسندگان : Ismail Baniadam Javid Fereidoni
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Methodology is one of the critical factors that plays a significant role in achieving the acceptable result in educational fields, particularly in the process of language teaching and learning in applied linguistics, and pave the way to fruitful improvement. CLT as a modern method has been accepted in language teaching in many developed countries but in some developing countries it does not have same popularity. The purpose of present paper is to review the main problems of using CLT method in Iran from Iranian EFL teachers’ perspectives. Knowing about these problems can be helpful for EFL teacher to get some perceptions about CLT method and help them to monitor their classes in successful way
  • On the Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Learning Styles: The Case of Iranian Psychology ESP learners

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : Mir Ayyoob Tabatabaei
    سایر نویسندگان : Mir Ayyoob Tabatabaei & Samad Ramzi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has long been scrutinized from a multitude of varied perspectives in the field of language teaching and learning. Similarly, literature on learning styles also enjoys a sufficient amount of depth and breadth in this field. Yet, the ostensible bonds between these two constructs have rarely been addressed by the research community. Therefore, the current study seeks to look into the viable relationship between emotional intelligence and learning styles of Iranian English for Specific Purposes (ESP) learners majoring psychology. To this end, two questionnaires, namely, ‘Bar-On’s EQ-I’ (1997) and a user-friendly version of learning styles questionnaire which was developed by Chislett and Chapman (2005) were administered to 80 ESP learners in Payam-e-Noor University. The final analysis of data, implemented mainly through the use of Pearson product moment correlation and t-test, pointed to a positive meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and learning styles (r = 0.72). Findings of the presents study have pedagogical implications for language teachers, syllabus designers, and students.
  • Improving the Proficiency of Iranian Students inLearning English by Using Games

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فرزانه حسن زاده توکلی
    سایر نویسندگان : فرزانه حسن زاده توکلی
  • چکیده مقاله:
    .One of the major problems of contemporary education is to motivate students, so motivation plays an important role in teaching especially learning English. There are several ways to motivate students. One of them is using games. Games are by definition fun and nearly everyone would agree if learning can be made enjoyable, then students will learn more. Therefore, my work is limited to use games to motivate students. In the first part of my article I will mention different kinds of motivation. I will also have a brief hint to different ways of improving motivation such as using visual aids, songs, games, etc. In the second part, the use of games in different skills and in vocabulary and grammar is briefly mentioned. In recent years teaching speaking skill has received great attention and methodologists suggest many ways to improve it. Also introducing speaking skill at the beginning of the course is a motivating factor. Since speaking and listening skills are interrelated, they are considered together. Therefore in the third part, I will suggest games to improve these two skills. In the last part, the use of games at Iranian schools has been examined. I have prepared some questionnaires and asked the opinion of some students and teachers about using games. Since Iranian schools are crowded and any game cannot be used there, several usable games are mentioned. There is no work written specially in the use of games to improve these two skills.
  • On the Differential Effect of Electronic and Metalinguistic Corrective Feedback on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : farahnaz Rimani Nikou
    سایر نویسندگان : 1. Farahnaz Rimani Nikou 2. Kameh Khasseh khan
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Based on the growing body of research on corrective feedback in the past decades, receiving feedback in language learning classrooms has been considered as one of the important factors which can help learners to have more effective learning. To achieve enough mastery in different aspects of target language (e.g. writing), error correction and receiving feedback would certainly be helpful. Therefore, the present study tried to investigate the effectiveness of two types of feedback (computer-mediated vs. metalinguistic) on Iranian EFL learners’ writing accuracy. Based on Nelson Proficiency Test (advanced 300) (Fowler & Coe, 1976), sixty nine Iranian advanced EFL learners, including 45 males and 24 females, aged between 17 and 24, learning English in language institutes in Salmas, participated in this study. They were divided into three groups. In two experimental groups, participants received metalinguistic and computer-mediated feedback while in the control group no feedback was provided. The analyses of the results obtained through a pre-test and a post-test indicated that both feedback types had significant effect on learners’ writing accuracy. The analysis of the participants’ performances on the post-test demonstrated that participants in metalinguistic group outperformed the computer-mediated one. So, the effect of metalinguistic feedback was more significant than that of computer-mediated feedback. Finally, the study concluded by providing some discussion and conclusion for its findings.
  • A multiple case study of Iranian high school teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices of classroom management

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : عذرا خلیلی
    سایر نویسندگان : Azra Khalili MA student of the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch Milad Ramazani Staff member of the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Sama Branch
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Teacher-pupil relationships in school years have been significantly correlated with a number of student outcomes including adjustment to school, academic success and social competence (Birch & Ladd, 1997; Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Pianta & Stuhlman, 2004). Teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices related to classroom management are also uniquely salient to the field of EFL education (Abidin & Robinson, 2002). This may have outstanding effects on learning English in a foreign language instruction setting like Iran and it would be surely very important to study this effect in Iranian high schools because all students at this level encounter the difficult task of learning English as a foreign language. Teachers are virtually always the ones who initiate the referral process and their opinions regarding student performance are considered vital. It follows that exploring teachers’ perspectives on classroom management is necessary in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the role that they play in determining educational placement, and whether their judgments concerning student behavior result in uniform and appropriate standards for referral. The present study was carried out in some schools in Urmia. The population to do the research was all high schools in Urmia. A pilot study was administered in the schools selected to have an almost homogeneous group of the experimental and control groups. The results showed the significant effect of Iranian high school teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices on classroom management.
  • Critical Portfolio as a Teacher Professional Development Tool

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : خدیجه آقائی
    سایر نویسندگان : Khadijeh Aghaei PhD in ELT, English Language Teaching & Literature Department Humanities Faculty, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran Email: aghaei.khadijeh@gmail.com Mojtaba Rajabi PhD in ELT, English Language Teaching & Literature Department Humanities Faculty, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran Email: rajabi.m57@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Research literature has recently seen portfolios as a tool for critical thinking in English language educational programs. However, there is no evidence to show the using critical portfolios as a teacher professional development tool is perceived by the teacher. Framed in critical pedagogy theory which conceptualizes teacher professional development programs as critically situated practice, this study, hence, was to explore the impact of using critical portfolio on professional development from the lens of Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions who applies portfolio in their language institutes. In order to meet research objective, a questionnaire based on critical pedagogy’s principles was designed and then administrated among 80 English language teachers selected by Snowball Sampling in Islamshahr English language institutes. The findings showed that most teachers had more positive perception of critical portfolio and perceived it as a promoter for teaching process and their future development. This study also has some ramifications for English language education programs such as per-service and in-service teacher training ones and many other educational stake holders.
  • De-motivating Factors and their Relation with Language Achievement among Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : خدیجه آقائی
    سایر نویسندگان : Khadijeh Aghaei PhD in ELT, English Language Teaching & Literature Department Humanities Faculty, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran Email: aghaei.khadijeh@gmail.com Seyyed Hassan Seyyed rezaei PhD in ELT, English Language Teaching & Literature Department Islamic Azad University, Ali Abad Katoul Branch, Ali Abad Katoul, Iran Zhale Azarpira M.A in ELT, English Language Teaching & Literature Department Islamic Azad University, Golestan Science and Research Branch, Gorga
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Motivation has a significant role in English language learning process. Motivated students are more successful in learning language. However, there always exist some obstacles on learning second or foreign language leading the learners to become de-motivated. Hence, this study tries to identify the possible de-motivating factors and indicate the relationship between de-motivating factors and language achievement among Iranian EFL male secondary school learners in a school in northern Iran. In order to meet the main objective of this study, two validated questionnaires were used. Firstly, a modified version of Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB) originally developed by Gardner (2004) was administered in order to demonstrate the amount of students' motivation. Then, and a modified version of Warrington's (2005) questionnaire was administered to show the most significant factors from the students’ point of view. The findings showed that the most three significant de-motivating factors were a) lack of using language of English speaking people and their culture and customs, b) no focus on oral skills such as speaking & listening c) difficult and boring educational content and also materials d) the fast speed rate of speaking during the lesson among English teachers. In order to measure the learners' achievement focusing de-motivating factors, Oxford Placement test (OPT) was finally used. Administrating (OPT) among students represented that the outcome of (OPT) students' score in Attitude/ Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) was different. Those motivated students had high scores and de-motivated ones had low scores. Findings of the study have some ramification for educational policy makers and curriculum developers to develop learning English language education programs focusing removing de-motivating factors.
  • Metalinguistic Corrective Feedback and its Possible Impact on Iranian EFL learners’ Vocabulary Enhancement

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : خدیجه آقائی
    سایر نویسندگان : Khadijeh Aghaei PhD in ELT, English Language & Literature Department Humanities Faculty, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran Email: aghaei.khadijeh@gmail.com Masomeh Atabaki English Language & Literature Department Humanities Faculty, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran Email: masoumeee@yahoo.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Providing language learner with appropriate feedback has had a significant place by itself in foreign or second language instructor. In the same vein, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of meta linguistics corrective feedback on the vocabulary enhancement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were 60 male EFL learners in an English language Institute in Azadshahr, a northern city in Iran. Prior to the experiment, the participants also received a researcher-made diagnostic vocabulary test. After the pretest, the participants in experimental group received metalinguistic corrective feedback but the control group received no feedback on their production during 18-session treatment. Each session took 90 minutes and was held three sessions a week working on Top Notch 1 book. Their progress was measured by another researcher-made test similar to the pre-test. The findings showed that metalinguistic corrective feedback type is significantly effective in vocabulary enhancement of Iranian EFL learners. This study has some ramifications for English language teachers as well.
  • Metalinguistic Corrective Feedback and Iranian EFL Learners’ Motivation in Vocabulary Enhancement

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مجتبی رجبی
    سایر نویسندگان : Mojtaba Rajabi PhD in ELT, English Language Teaching & Literature Department Humanities Faculty, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran Email: rajabi.m57@gmail.com
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In many EFL contexts, students are highly dependent on their teachers as they want to increase their vocabulary knowledge. In these educational settings, Metalinguistics corrective feedback can be introduced as an effective technique for learners’ vocabulary enhancement. Designed in an experimental one, the present study was to identify whether the metalinguistic corrective feedback contributes on the Iranian EFL learners’ motivation in vocabulary enhancement. The participants i.e. 40 female EFL learners in an language Institute in Azadshahr, a northern city in Golestan province in Iran were divided to the control group who followed the traditional method of vocabulary learning and the experimental group which followed up the metalinguistic corrective feedback as an effective technique.To analyze the data taken from pretests and posttests, mainly t-test was run to probe any significant difference between the experimental and control group on development of vocabulary.The results demonstrated a significant difference between the control and the experiment group receiving metalinguistics corrective feedback group and there are significant differences in motivation for vocabulary learning among the control and metalinguistic groups. This study has some pedagogical implications for language teachers focusing vocabulary enhancement.
  • Standard English or World Englishes: Issues of Ownership and Preference

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سهیلا طهماسبی
    سایر نویسندگان : Soheila Tahmasbi, Islamic Azad University, Abadan Branch Tahmasebi_so@yahoo.com Asadalah Hashemi Fardnya, Islamic Azad University , Science and Research Branch–Khouzestan
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The widespread use of English worldwide ended in Englishes which are plural when used by local language users. As these World Englishes, in contrast to that of Standard English, consider all realizations of English as equally valid, debates over non-native English norms, standards, and attitudes remain a question. Such diversities also level arguments against language ownership for those communities who have English as their first language and are still language models. In line with such arguments, the aims of this study were 1) to investigate, to what extent Iranian EFL learners, as a community positioned in the expanding circle of English users, present positive or negative attitudes toward World Englishes (WEs) and Standard English (SE) and 2) whether they claim ownership over English. Twelve MA EFL students were invited and their viewpoints were collected through three semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that most participants’ views skewed toward supporting WEs. Furthermore, they were more willing to call English as EFL learners’ property. Although they appreciated the prestigious stance of SE, they showed no negative views toward either WEs or SE. Regarding such results, the study may have some implications for those syllabus designers and language teachers.
  • The Effects of English Songs on Young Learners’ Listening Comprehension and Pronunciation

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فریبا قنبری
    سایر نویسندگان : Fariba Ghanbari M.A. graduated student of TEFL Dr. Mahmood Hashemian Teaching TEFL in Department of English, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran Dr. Sajad Shafeei Teaching TEFL in Department of English, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    ABSTRACT: Integrating English songs into L2 classes might be considered by some authors to be a factor conducive to the improvement of EFL learners’ listening ability. It is ideal for young L2 learners because it is a way to help them become enthusiastic learners. Most L2 learners, whether young or adult, have difficulty with listening comprehension and pronunciation. A good listening comprehension lays the basic part for developing other skills in foreign language learning. Also, pronunciation is the most important skill because if one has a poor pronunciation, their message could not be understandable to the listeners. This research aimed to determine the effect of using songs on young L2 learners listening comprehension and pronunciation and to discover the possible difference between male and female learners in achieving better results in learning listening comprehension and pronunciation. In this regard, 60 male and female elementary L2 learners with the age range of 8-11 were randomly selected and assigned to 4 groups: 2 experimental groups with 1 containing 15 males and the other 15 females. There were also 2 control groups with 1 containing 15 males and the other 15 females. To ascertain that the experimental group and the control group were homogeneous, all the groups took a pretest. An independent-samples t test was performed to analyze the data obtained on the pretest. Also, a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized in order to come up with the answers to the questions of the study. The results revealed that utilizing songs in L2 classes had a positive effect on the L2 learners’ listening comprehension and pronunciation skills. It was also found that there was no significant difference between the male and female learners’ performance in obtaining better results in listening comprehension and pronunciation.
  • The Effect of Self-Regulated Feedback in Summative, Formative, and Dynamic Assessments on Listening Comprehension of EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فاطمه نفرزاده نفری
    سایر نویسندگان : فاطمه نفرزاده نفری* fatemeh_nafarzadehnafari@yahoo.com دانشجوی دکترا سایر 09126134950 معلم/آموزشگاه زبان ترجمان کبری توسلی kobra.tavassoli@kiau.ac.ir دکترای تخصصی استادیار 09124605717 استادیار/دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج
  • چکیده مقاله:
    As an important aspect of learning, self-regulated feedback is assumed to help EFL learners to understand, plan, and monitor their learning processes, and to perceive the importance of their contribution in their learning (Zimmerman, 2002). Similarly, the importance of the learners’ contribution to their own learning has been emphasized in various types of assessment (Brown & Abeywickrama, 2010). The present study therefore tried to emerge these two important issues by exploring the effect of self-regulated feedback in different types of assessment including summative, formative, and dynamic on listening comprehension ability of intermediate EFL learners. For this purpose, initially, a PET listening test was administered to 120 EFL students 90 of which were selected. The participants were then divided into three experimental groups, each receiving self-regulated feedback on listening comprehension under a specific type of assessment. In the summative assessment group, the participants received feedback after class activities and on the posttest whereas in the formative and dynamic assessment groups, in addition to this, they also received feedback on 5 listening tests throughout the semester, however, the way they were treated varied. After the treatment, another version of PET listening test was administered as the posttest. The results of a repeated-measures two-way ANOVA showed that there is a significant improvement in all the three groups. More specifically, the findings showed that although the dynamic assessment group outperformed the other two groups in the posttest, the difference was only significant between the dynamic and summative groups. Conclusions and pedagogical implications will be further discussed.
  • The Effect of Providing both Background Knowledge and Required Vocabularies on EFL Intermediate Students' Reading Comprehension Performance

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : Samrand Amini
    سایر نویسندگان : Samrand Amini Department of English, Islamic Azad University, West Azarbayjan Science and Research Branch, Iran S_amini1989@yahoo.com Alireza Bonyadi Department of English, Islamic Azad University, West Azarbayjan Science and Research Branch, Iran Parviz Alavinia Department of English, Urmia University,
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Reading in a second or foreign language, as one of the four basic skills, is an interesting area of research because the factors affecting reading have brought about much controversy in related theory and research. Particularly, schema theory and vocabulary knowledge have raised long-term debate about whether background knowledge and vocabulary knowledge facilitate or impede reading comprehension. In recognition of such issues, the current research was conducted to examine the impact of providing students with both background knowledge and required vocabularies on EFL reading comprehension performance. Eighty intermediate level students of English from Danial language institute, Naqadeh, Iran, participated in the study. Ten reading comprehension texts were provided for the students under four treatment conditions of providing students with: a) background knowledge, b) required vocabularies, c) both background knowledge and required vocabularies, and d) no specified treatment (control group). The results revealed no significant difference between background knowledge group and control group; and also between required vocabulary group and control group. On the other hand, the obtained results indicated significantly positive effects of providing students with both background knowledge and required vocabularies on EFL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings of the study some implications for second language pedagogy in view of teaching reading and classroom assessment of reading comprehension have been suggested. However, the most important finding of this research relates to the significant effect of providing both background knowledge and required vocabularies (together) which has not been given due attention in previous research.
  • The study of needs analysis for Iranian high school EFL learners across gender

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : Fateh Hoseini
    سایر نویسندگان : Fateh Hoseini
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Learners` needs as well as their specific skills are two essential elements in improving teaching-learning processes. Therefore, in order to provide the best learning environment for the learners, there must be an opportunity for them to express their needs themselves. On this very study, the main concern is to identify the EFL students` needs based on their own perceptions. For the aim of the present study, a descriptive research design was conducted whose participants were male and female high school students in Baneh. This study sheds more light on ways teachers should pass in order to be regarded as effective teachers. The data were gathered based on 400 students’ answers the provided questionnaire. The participants were selected in intact classes at two high schools in Baneh. The questionnaire was a specific version of Watanabes` (2006) questionnaire (i.e. the questionnaire used in this study took receptive and productive skills into account separately. The gathered data was processed by means of S.P.S.S and using means, SDs, and ranks; for inferential statistics, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were utilized. The findings of the present study identified some specific needs marked by male and female learners; but the results also claimed no significant difference regarding receptive and productive skills in different genders as well as different high school grade-levels.
  • Emotional Intelligence and Willingness to Communication in Speaking Ability: A Case Study

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : نجمه باقری
    سایر نویسندگان : نجمه باقری
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This study investigated relationship between Emotional intelligence and willingness to communication in speaking ability. To this end, three types of instruments were applied to collect research data, i.e., Mccrosky’s (1992) Willingness to Communicate Scale, Bar-On’s (1997) Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) as well as a final achievement exam administered at the end of the term to gather students English speaking grades. For the analysis of the data correlation and independent samples t- test to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance were used. The findings indicated that there was a relationship between speaking ability and emotional intelligence. Also, there was a positive relationship between speaking ability and willingness to communication. On the other hand, there was not a significant difference between females and males on the speaking task, emotional intelligence and willingness to communicate.
  • Cultural conceptualisations of Time in Persian

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Sepideh Hozhabrossadat
    سایر نویسندگان : Sepideh Hozhabrossadat PhD Candidate in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, Monash University
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Time is an abstract concept which is often concretized through some tangible and observable phenomenon such as money. Previous research has shown that various metaphorical mapping systems are employed by people when they need to talk about time. TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE and TIME IS AN OBJECT are among the most cited mappings in these studies (e.g. Boroditsky, 1999, 2001). Central to these metaphors, the relationship between the observer and the observed, as either “a moving time and a stable observer” and “a stable time and a moving observer” have also been analysed (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). This article explores cultural conceptualisations of time in the Persian language. The study aimed at finding the image schemas which form the basis of the conceptualisations of time for Persian speakers by looking at three basic metaphors: TIME IS SPACE, TIME IS AN OBJECT, and TIME IS A PERSON. The study was conducted using both quantitative (corpus analysis) and qualitative (library research) methodology. Using the framework of Cultural Linguistics (Sharifian, 2011), categories and sub-categories were pinpointed and coded for further analysis. The results are significant in that they suggest a new pattern (“a moving time and a moving observer”) in Persian conceptualisations regarding “time”. Boroditsky, L. 1999. Metaphoric structuring: understanding time through spatial Metaphors. Cognition, 75 (2000): 1-28. Boroditsky, L. 2011. Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43 (1): 1–22. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Sharifian, F. 2011. Cultural conceptualisations and Language. John Benjamins Publishing Company 3-17.
  • The Impact of Using online platform and Web-based Materials on Iranian EFL Learners Writing Achievement

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : نيما علي زاده
    سایر نویسندگان : Nima Alizadeh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study was intended to investigate the Impact of online platforms and materials on Iranian EFL learners’ grammar achievement. In order to this end, a group of 28 EFL learners was randomly placed in two groups, after conducting the placement test. The participants were placed in one experimental group, namely online platform (N=14), and one Control (N=14).The participants of the online platform and web-based materials received learning via the web online. Participants of the control group, however, were taught based on the traditional teaching methods of grammar and received the materials, instructions, and feedback through traditional methods in the classroom. In order to collect the data, first a pre-test, then post-test and the last one delayed post-test consists of 30 multiple -choice items was given to the participants. The results of the one-way analysis of variance and repeated measure tests showed that the participants of the Tradition group outperformed of the experimental group in their grammar achievement. Having a more meticulous look at the results, it was observed that participants of the Web-based group although had a significant performance in the post-test and delayed post-test, too. It significantly outperforms those of online learning and web-based classroom. In conclusion, the results of the study revealed that employing an online Learning platform creates a desirable condition to enhance achievement of the EFL learners grammar knowledge . This is because participants were completely familiar with the benefits the method can have for EFL learners by using the technology (software, web pages , ...).Therefore, an important implication of the study is that EFL learners who are familiar with computer canboost their performance as soon as possible.
  • The differences between long term and short term teaching

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : مسعود علاقه بندی
    سایر نویسندگان : Masoud alaghebandi - seyed jafar rafiee
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The goal of this essay is preparing information about the methods of long term and short term teaching . Most institutes have been using long term teaching method , but we have been teaching in short term method so long and have known a lot of differences . Institutes have been using the books that have many exercises and those books have long term form ,but in short term method we have been using different kind of books for better understanding , fast and easy learning while their exercises are less than other books , we have chosen 10 person that they participated in both long and short term classes , and asked them some questions about their experiences in the both classes. ,also we took a test from 10 person that they attended just in long term classes , on the other side of 10 person who attended in short term classes , the results were amazing , the tests showed us there are so many differences and similarity between both classes
  • The Effect of the Type of Cognitive Tasks on Iranian EFL Learners’ Critical Reading Skills

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : سعید خنجرخانی
    سایر نویسندگان : Elham Zarfsaz, PhD Saeed Khanjarkhani
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The present study examined the impact of the two sorts of cognitive tasks on Iranian EFL learners' basic critical reading skills. in order to get the results of this study, the researcher tried to discover the contrasts between pre-test and post-test scores regarding the development of critical reading skills between the control and experimental groups by considering the scores acquired through pre-test and post-test regarding content, association, language, message conveyance and the degree to which they have perused the passages critically. In this very study, 80 homogenized advanced Iranian EFL students took part through eight sessions in both the groups due to the study. The treatment incorporated the utilization of two cognitive tasks (i.e. sentence completion and visual perceptual matching) for the experimental group though the control group proceeded with the standard strategies which were indicated by their instructors. Language learners in both control and experimental groups were to deal with a few texts and attempt to peruse them critically. A sum of 160 composed items for pre-test and post-test were evaluated by two English instructors. After data collection, the score-means were ascertained and independent samples T-test was utilized to decide the presence of the conceivable effect of cognitive tasks on the development of the learners' general critical skills. In the meantime, the learners' attitudes toward the cognitive tasks were researched utilizing a questionnaire. In view of the consequences of this study, the majority of the learners concurred and unequivocally concurred the consideration of these tasks, and among the groups of the present study, the posttest results were significantly different, and thus the utilization of cognitive tasks can reinforce dramatically the learners' critical reading skills.
  • Assessing Iranian EFL Teachers’ Assessment Literacy and Their Classroom Practice

    نوع پذیرش : پوستر
    نویسنده مسئول : Ali Azarnia
    سایر نویسندگان : Hossein Farhady Ali Azarnia, Zhila Balegh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Assessment literacy of teachers has been a major concern in all educational disciplines in general and in EFL community, in particular. Despite the ample research on assessment literacy, little information is available on the relationship between the degree of assessment literacy of teachers and their performance in real classroom settings. The previous literature on this issue has mainly focused on finding out the extent to which a certain group of teachers is assessment literate. The aims of the article are to examine the level of assessment literacy among Iranian EFL teachers, to lay hands on the most momentous subparts in language testing which have determining shares in better test designs by testers, to determine the hypothetically feasible role of a lengthy experience in the field of English language testing as an alternative for assessment literacy, and to find out the relationship between the teachers’ assessment literacy and their own practice. The findings of the study indicated that the Iranian EFL teachers are at a medium level of assessment literacy, the knowledge of the general issues in testing (i.e., reliability, validity, and practicality) as long as the knowledge of the test construction (i.e., what and how standard items should be like) had a big share in comparison with other subsets of the assessment literacy on the teachers’ performance on test constructions; the teaching experience cannot individually make good testers; and there is a clear relationship between assessment literacy and the teachers’ performance.
  • Assessing Iranian EFL Teachers’ Assessment Literacy and Their Classroom Practice

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Ali Azarnia
    سایر نویسندگان : Hossein Farhady Ali Azarnia, Zhila Balegh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Assessment literacy of teachers has been a major concern in all educational disciplines in general and in EFL community, in particular. Despite the ample research on assessment literacy, little information is available on the relationship between the degree of assessment literacy of teachers and their performance in real classroom settings. The previous literature on this issue has mainly focused on finding out the extent to which a certain group of teachers is assessment literate. The aims of the article are to examine the level of assessment literacy among Iranian EFL teachers, to lay hands on the most momentous subparts in language testing which have determining shares in better test designs by testers, to determine the hypothetically feasible role of a lengthy experience in the field of English language testing as an alternative for assessment literacy, and to find out the relationship between the teachers’ assessment literacy and their own practice. The findings of the study indicated that the Iranian EFL teachers are at a medium level of assessment literacy, the knowledge of the general issues in testing (i.e., reliability, validity, and practicality) as long as the knowledge of the test construction (i.e., what and how standard items should be like) had a big share in comparison with other subsets of the assessment literacy on the teachers’ performance on test constructions; the teaching experience cannot individually make good testers; and there is a clear relationship between assessment literacy and the teachers’ performance.
  • Attitudes of Students of Medicine toward Oral Presentations as Part of their ESP (English for Specific Purposes) Course

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Giti Karimkhanlooei
    سایر نویسندگان : Giti Karimkhanlooei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Abstract This article takes a functional approach to examine the attitudes of medical students toward oral presentations in English for specific purposes (ESP) courses by focusing on the performances delivered by the students to catch precise attitude in respect of the effectivity. The article reflects on shift of attention from sole teacher-centered classes via helping learners to communicate in the globalized age of knowledge by means of emphasis on oral presentations. This approach considers the students’ viewpoints about implementing oral presentations in ESP classes. The attitudes, meanwhile, adhere to learners’ problems which hinder them to be active participants and presenters in their classes. However, there are controversies about the appropriateness and constraints of oral presentations by students in an ESP and EFL learning environment. It seems that with meticulous structured planning and organization, oral presentations can lead to valuable for both learners and teachers. While, such activities account for a break away from textbooks, provide for students such a learning setting that they attend classes with preplanning and excitement. The introduction of oral presentations to ESP classrooms encourages learners in training themselves to have confident presentations in public. This fact is especially true for students of medicine who find themselves in need of taking part at international programs where they need to speak out their research findings and science-based academic developments.
  • Iranian ELT Teachers' Use of First Language in Prospect Series Course books

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Ebrahim Davoudi Sharifabad
    سایر نویسندگان : Dr. Ebrahim Davoudi Sharifabad , Department of English, Torbat-e Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Iran Mohammad Ali Kowsary, Department of English, Torbat-e Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Nowadays, one of the most serious issues in teaching a second language is whether using first language is allowed or not during the teaching process. However, this critical issue is also important for Iranian teachers in teaching Prospect 1, a new course book for Iranian junior high school students. The study tries to consider the use of the first language (Persian) by both Iranian EFL teachers and learners in teaching Prospect 1. Moreover, teachers and students’ attitudes toward using Persian in English classrooms are scrutinized in this paper. To conduct this research, thirty five Iranian EFL junior high school teachers, teaching Prospect 1 in Khorasan-e Razavi Province, and sixty Iranian junior high school students participated in the study. The data were collected through two sets of questionnaires, for both the teachers and students. A questionnaire was used to collect data. As the results of the study reported, the tendency is toward using both L1 and L2 where Prospect 1 Course book is taught.
  • Lord Byron’s “Darkness”: A Personal Apocalypse

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Maria Farnam
    سایر نویسندگان : Farah Ghaderi. Maria Farnam
  • چکیده مقاله:
    . Farah Ghaderi Urmia University, Iran f.ghaderi@urmia.ac.ir Maria Farnam M.A. Student of English literature, Urmia University, Iran mariahitkafarnam@gmail.com Lord Byron’s “Darkness”: A Personal Apocalypse Abstract Lord Byron`s poem “Darkness” has been generally looked at as a religious poem which is directly pointing to Apocalypse. Even though there are some connections between the imagery of “Darkness” and religious thought, the poem does not incorporate all the elements of Apocalypse in its dominant understanding. Drawing on Lord Byron’s life and letters, this article aims to highlight the dark outlook of the poet at the time when he wrote this poem. Accordingly, it argues that “Darkness” could be considered as Lord Byron’s personal apocalypse. Keywords: Apocalypse; Byron; “Darkness”; dream; revelation
  • DISSIDENCE THROUGH DESIRING ABJECTION IN “OTHELLO”

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : Maria Farnam
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Teymouri. Maria Farnam
  • چکیده مقاله:
    Tohid Teymouri Phd Student of English Literature, Isfahan University, Iran Tohidrohiteymouri@gmail.com Maria Farnam M.A. Student of English Literature, Urmia University, Iran Mariahitkafarnam@gmail.com DISSIDENCE THROUGH DESIRING ABJECTION IN “OTHELLO” Abstract This study tries to indicate how Desdemona resists the dominant ideology in Renaissance society through desiring Othello . Othello as a Moor is threat to social reason and order, that addresses abjection in terms of Julia Kristeva. According to Kristeva abjection in society is a quality or a person that harms the social order, therefore it should be expelled. While Othello as a black is abject, Desdemona desires and marries him. Marrying a black is Desdemona`s resistance against the dominant ideology of Venice that considers interracial marriage a threat to established hierarchy. Venice at time is a patriarchal society in which women are subjected to men. On the other hand, marriage of colors is not accepted as a reasonable act in this society. However, Desdemona as a woman shows dissidence against the authoritative ideology of a patriarchal society through an interracial marriage. The idea of Othello as abjection and Desdemona`s dissidence moves forward this paper which intends to point out that desiring abjection in a patriarchal society like Venice of Othello overthrows the social order. Key words: dissidence, abjection, self, other, Moor, Othello, Kristeva, Sinfield
  • The Effect of Using Picture Series in Improving Students’ Writing Skills at Shahed Nasle Payam high School

    نوع پذیرش : Poster
    نویسنده مسئول : لیلا نوری
    سایر نویسندگان : Leila Noori Fahime Sadat Hosseini
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This research’s goal is to improve students’ writing skills via using picture series of the upper intermediate students of Shahed Nasle Payam high school in the first semester of the academic year of 2017. Our study was an action research project which was conducted by groups with five students in each group. The subjects of the study were 30 young female students with an average age of 14 years old. The researchers conducted three exams and also they prepared a questionnaire to know students’ attitude toward teaching- learning process. The results of the research indicated the effectiveness of using picture series in improving students’ writing skills. This study helped students to generate ideas. It also attracted students’ whole attention and increased their motivation in writing sections.
  • the effect of clustering on Iranian Intermediate (EFL) learners’ vocabulary performanc

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : مریم رستگار
    سایر نویسندگان : Maryam Rastgar
  • چکیده مقاله:
    There is no doubt that vocabulary is essential in learning a language. Finding an effective method for vocabulary teaching is of great importance. Vocabulary cluster is a valuable tool for delivering whole group instruction on unusual or hard-to-learn vocabulary words. Semantic clustering implies that language learners are provided with new words in the form of the sets of words that share an intimately related meaning. Thus the current study tried to investigate the effect of clustering on Iranian Intermediate (EFL) learners’ vocabulary performance. Sixty male high school learners participated in the quasi-experimental study. They were divided into two groups; one experimental and the other control 30 in each. One pre-test was conducted to both groups before the study. The treatment lasted for an academic semester. After the treatment, the same vocabulary post-test was administered to the groups. The data analysis through the statistical test of t-test indicated that clustering had a significantly positive effect on vocabulary performance of intermediate EFL learners. The positive effects of clustering are result of their role in aiding learners in making sensible connections among words and objects. Schema connections are result of clustering, that is; through using clusters learners knew how to remember the relevant words they acquired before. The effectiveness of teaching new vocabulary items in semantically-related groups, i.e. semantic clusters, derived from early educational psychology.
  • Iranian EFL Teachers’ Perception of Teacher Autonomy

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : زهرا فهیمی
    سایر نویسندگان : Zahra Fahimi
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In recent years, there has been a noteworthy growth of interest in the theory and practice of autonomy in language teaching and learning. Teacher autonomy has been defined as the ability to develop appropriate skills, knowledge and attitudes for oneself as a teacher, in cooperation with others; the right to freedom from control (Benson 2000) and teachers’ capacity to engage in self-directed teaching (Little 1995). Teachers can consider themselves as learners in the process of teaching if they see it as an activity which needs adopting useful perspectives in a variety of pedagogical and attitudinal expertise. The enhancement of teacher-learner autonomy can be argued to have an intrinsic value within teacher education program since teacher-learning is unavoidably a largely self-directed process. Autonomous teachers have the ability of reflecting on their duties they carry out. However, it is worthy to mention that this requires preparing the ground and providing flexible conditions for the teachers. This demands raising teachers’ awareness, widening their duties, increasing their responsibilities and more generally, changing their working conditions and status. The present paper aims at exploring Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of teacher autonomy and their current situation and will focus on the different possible dimensions of teacher autonomy. One hundred EFL teachers in Tehran answered an open-ended questionnaire and twenty participants then took part in semi-structured interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings showed that the participants had quite positive attitude toward the promotion of teacher autonomy in language teaching. They mentioned the criteria which they found helpful in promoting teacher autonomy. However, they found some mismatches between their perceptions and teaching practices.
  • Spectral Project of Modernity in Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance in Light of Trauma Criticism

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : سپیدہ اسدی
    سایر نویسندگان : Sepideh Asadi , Nasser Dasht Peyma . MA in English Language and Literature, Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran . sepidehasadi23@yahoo.com . PhD in English Language and Literature, Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran n.dashtpeyma@iaut.ac.ir
  • چکیده مقاله:
    This paper presents the unfinished project of modernity and its spectral trace in Edwards Albee's A Delicate Balance in light of trauma criticism to exhibit the un going trauma which exists in the drama. A Delicate Balance explores the confusion that erupts in a modern family's effort to avoid pain and imbalance. Characters in A Delicate Balance find the pain of this reality too much to bear, and they return into the fragile protection of the delicate balance of their lives, even though they now realize that its forms and rules are empty. Denial of emotions, loss of opportunities and regret over paths not taken as mirrored in the lives of a very well-to-do suburban couple who have retired but find their long-sought freedom about to decay. Their home comes under attack by emotionally wounded family members and friends, who ,in the end, expose the couple's own emotional insecurities. The characters in A Delicate Balance must face reality of their lives. A Delicate Balance has been credited with creating an archetype for American drama with its classic study of the American family, albeit a quite dysfunctional one. According to Diaspora criticism, modernity of America was due to suffering of blacks and it was shaped wholly by these people, but American society fails to accept this reality and eventually, leads to failure of American Dream's ideals and Albee tries to exhibit this failure in the lives of that period. In this play, Albee depicts the disintegration of American nuclear family and the state of domestic affairs and sense of identity is clear in the characters
  • Dealing Correctly with Idiomatic Expressions: A Review of Teaching Approaches

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : رضا رضایی
    سایر نویسندگان : Reza Rezaei
  • چکیده مقاله:
    “There are fixed phrases consisting of more than one word, with meaning that cannot be inferred by knowing the meaning of the individual words” (Fromkin & Rodman, 1983.p. 181). Foreign language learners of English often have trouble in understanding idiomatic expressions and using them correctly in the appropriate situation. In order to enable students improve their vocabulary, teachers should become aware of the importance of idioms and proverbs and how to deal with them correctly. This paper is based on my studies and experiences in the two credit course entitled “Idioms and Metaphorical Expressions in Translation”. Even though students and teachers judge the idioms as useless, due to the fact that the expressions are not frequently encountered in real life situations. Such a belief is in line with Simpson and Mendis (2003), Liu (2003), and Irujo (1986) who also maintain that textbooks often introduce uncommon and inappropriate idioms. This study is, therefore, an attempt to present different approaches to teaching idiomatic expressions effectively, and to help teachers to make more educated decisions regarding idioms encountered in a text, and to help their students to use them in real language use.
  • The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Language Learning Strategies In Iranian English Learners

    نوع پذیرش : شفاهی
    نویسنده مسئول : پریسا فرخ
    سایر نویسندگان : Parisa Farrokh
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The increasing number of recent researches shows that emotional intelligence is important as well as other intelligences in many aspects of people’s lives. Although it is not vastly used or studied, it can be found in language teaching and learning. This study was an investigation to detect the relationship between English as a foreign language students’ emotional intelligence and their language achievement at university level. To do this, 100 undergraduate EFL university students from freshman and women to senior ones from Rasht Islamic Azad University, Iran, took part in this study. For the purpose of data collection, the researchers administered Proficiency test and Bar-On’s (1997) emotional intelligence inventory. One- hundred participants were considered homogeneous to start the research. To analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The findings of the present study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the students’ emotional intelligence and their language learning strategies. In addition , the most frequent strategy used by Iranian Learners was metacognitive strategy. The findings of this study may serve as recommendations to instructors to modify methods which can be appropriate for students and their emotional intelligence level and also might help them select appropriate teaching materials for students with different abilities.
  • The Effect of Task-induced Involvement on Incidental Vocabulary Learning: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : توحید گل قاسم قره باغ
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Golqasem Qarebagh Amir Jahangiri
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The Effect of Task-induced Involvement on Incidental Vocabulary Learning: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners Tohid Golqasem Qarebagh (Corresponding Author) t.golqasem@gmail.com Islamic Azad University of Urmia Amir Jahangiri Amir.jahangiri90@yahoo.com English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Urmia University Abstract: The current paper reports on a study that investigated the efficiency in the use of tasks with different involvement loads in L2 word learning and retention of Persian learners of English with respect to Laufer and Hulstijn’s (2011a) Involvement Load Hypothesis. To this end, two tasks, a retelling task (strong effort) and a reading comprehension plus interactive glossary task (moderate effort) were completed by two groups of male learners in a language institute, including 21 high and 20 low proficiency learners. In order to determine the unfamiliar words, two vocabulary checklists, each of which consisting of some words selected from the texts (Two short stories: ‘Scary night’ and ‘Little brother’) and some distracters were given to learners a week before treatment. Receptive and productive knowledge of target words were assessed immediately after the treatment and again 10 days later by the use of the same Paribakht and Wesche’s VKS (1996) to estimate the short-term and long-term word retention of learners, respectively. In line with the prediction of the Involvement Load Hypothesis, the retention of words was higher in the retelling task and lower in reading comprehension plus interactive glossary task. An interesting finding of this study was that the proficiency level of learners does not significantly affect their amount of vocabulary learning and retention. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. Keywords: Involvement Load Hypothesis; Word Retention; Task Use; Receptive and Productive Knowledge
  • The Effect of Collocational Knowledge on Reading Comprehension: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : توحید گل قاسم قره باغ
    سایر نویسندگان : Tohid Golqasem Qarebagh Amir Jahangiri
  • چکیده مقاله:
    The Effect of Collocational Knowledge on Reading Comprehension: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners Tohid Golqasem Qarebagh (Corresponding Author) t.golqasem@gmail.com Islamic Azad University of Urmia Amir Jahangiri Amir.jahangiri90@yahoo.com English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Urmia University Abstract: The importance of vocabulary collocations has not been clearly defined yet. As MOON (1999) states, collocations have always been a challenging issue in teaching and learning a foreign language. Thus, the current study was an attempt to investigate the possible effects of knowledge of collocations on Iranian EFL students’ reading comprehension achievement. The participants of this study were randomly selected among 79 male and female students studying at Urmia University. The participants were divided into two groups of experimental and control. The main treatment was based on instructions on collocations. During this period the experimental group received a treatment based on collocations, while the control group did not experience any treatment. Results showed that the instruction on vocabulary collocations had not any significant impact on students’ reading comprehension achievement. In other words, the experimental group did not outperformed the control group. As regard to the relationship between participants’ scores on collocations and their scores on reading comprehension tests, a significant correlation has been observed. The implication and suggestions for further research are discussed. Keywords: Vocabulary Collocation, Reading Comprehension, EFL Learners
  • The Effect of Concordancing on Iranian High School Students' Learning of Phrasal verbs across Proficiency Levels

    نوع پذیرش : Oral
    نویسنده مسئول : فاطمه میرزاپور
    سایر نویسندگان : Fatemeh Mirzapour - Hamideh Kazemzadeh Ghadim
  • چکیده مقاله:
    In spite of the highly beneficial applications of corpus linguistics in language pedagogy, it has not found its way into mainstream EFL. The major reasons seem to be the teachers' lack of training and the unavailability of resources, especially computers in language classes. Phrasal verbs have been shown to be a problematic area of learning English as a foreign language due to their semantic opacity and structural differences between English and learners' first languages. The present study aimed at investigating the difference between the performances of learners who studied phrasal verbs by an English teaching method that uses concordance methods and those who studied phrasal verbs by traditional method. In addition, the difference between high and low proficiency learners in the concordance group was investigated. Fifty pre-intermediate learners from Farzanegan Highschool in Khoy participated in this study. They were divided into controlled and experimental groups randomly. To ensure the homogeneity of two groups the proficiency test of Ket was administered. Then, they were given a pre-test. After receiving 6 sessions of instruction, the participants first took the first post-test and after four weeks, they were given a delayed-posttest. Findings showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and the control groups. Also, there was a significant difference between high and low proficiency learners using concordance approach, with the high proficiency learners outperforming the low group. The results of the current study can be employed by policy makers,curriculum designers,educational organizations,academic specialists,administrators,course developers,and teachers and at the same time learners.